« PreviousContinue »
imports nearly all of her breadstuffs, and | villages. They are just alike. Only thic so there is no wheat harvest, except as people differ, and they very little." the men and women cut the little patches October 1. — The last grass is being mentioned with hand-sickles.
mown, and the pears are being taken M was telling me to-day that, with from the trees. It is the fourth mowing. all the slow way of doing things, grass- M— has some seventy-five pear-trees growing is very profitable, and that there crowded into his little farm, and a few apcan be more money made with grass, with ples. He will have about what apples the dairies, with pear-growing, and even with family can use, but none to sell. Both vegetables, than with grapes. He prefers apples and pears have done poorly. Still, grapes, however, as he thinks it a "nicer" he will make the pears into cider, and will kind of farming. Besides, if he can not sell sell it before Christmas for about two hunhis wine this year, it is all the better and dred dollars. The grass under the trees the dearer next. It bears better interest is good, and he will have to buy little or by keeping than his five per cent. bonds do. no hay for his horse and two cows this
Saw them bringing some hay over the winter. lake in boats. It was a pretty scene, just October 10.-A half - dozen neighbors in the twilight. Everything about farm are on the farm, and the grape-cutting life on the Continent seems picturesque. has commenced. There is any amount They seem to study novel ways of doing of sport on the occasion. As soon as the things, and almost every hut, or house, or cutting is done, there will be a party and barn, or bridge, seems built with an eye to a dance in the barn. We are invited to pretty effect. In America this is usual- take part, and shall certainly do so. Some ly left out of the undertaking entirely. of the peasants will come masked, and A correspondent of a Berlin paper wrote there will be no sleeping that night withonce from Cincinnati: “When you have in a mile of “my farm.” A few grapes seen one town in America, you have seen have been cut by neighbors already, and all; one farm, all farms; one village, all the wagons go by with the queer long
casks on top filled with new wine. The bung-holes of the casks are filled with
Servant bouquets of roses-a gift to Bacchus. I
180 saw one wine wagon with a nearly naked Extra help—washer-woman, seamstress, and little boy astride the cask, a Bacchus him- extra hand occasionally
200 self, with coal-black eyes and laughing Schooling and clothing of the two children locks.
100 M- now calculates on the profits of
Clothing of two persons
200 the year's farming. His four acres of Groceries
50 grapes have produced twenty saum each Meat and bread
50 of decent Swiss wine; value by spring will Books, amusements, etc... be fifteen dollars and twenty-five cents
$1390 per saum, or about one thousand two hun- Total income
$2070 dred and twenty dollars, equalling twen- Total expenses.
1390 ty per cent. on the investment, counting Difference.
$680 the grape land to be worth one thousand six hundred dollars per acre. Some of The clear profit on M—'s investment M—'s neighbors, who have worked more than he, have this year made thirty per cent. on their grape-farm investments, and it is only an av
erage year at that. The apple and pear trees ought to produce as much profit as the grapes, but this year M-- is not so fortunate as to have everything turn out well. He keeps books, and here is an extract from the last page:
of $20,000, then, is $680 in cash, plus all the expenses of a family of four persons.
These expenses were, deducting the items Onions
that came of working the farm (say $400), Pears.. Grapes
$990. Add this to the $680 clear gain, Milk sold..
100 and the earnings of the $20,000 may be Honey...
100 set down at $1670, or nearly thirteen per Potatoes
cent. Interest on bonds_$5000-at 5 per cent.... Rent of rooms to me, $140, not estimated.
says he never did much better
than this when in business, when the Total income..
risks and the anxieties were unspeakably
greater As to the health, and pleasure, | en been told, viz., that a man who has as and all that, to be obtained in the two nice a little sum of money as twenty thoucallings, I am sure nobody would ever sand dollars saved can be happier and think of comparing them.
safer in the world, working a bit of land, I am glad I kept this diary. I have than by remaining in the risky whirlpool now convinced myself of what I had oft- I of what is called “business."
" This bright art
ors, and the realization of an artistic Did zealous Europe learn of pagan hands,
thought, that the lady of fashion is proud While she assay'd with rage of holy war of, not, as formerly, the money that these To desolate their fields; but old the skill:
cost. She has now a real appreciation of Long were the Phrygians' pict'ring looms renowned; the beauty of her India shawl, with its Tyre also, wealthy seat of art, excell'd, And elder Sidon, in the historic web."-DYER.
seven hundred stitches to the square inch,
and other features that make her treasures MBROIDERY, though properly con- of old lace so valuable. The mere filling
sidered a comparatively unimportant in of worsted-work is superseded by an sister art of painting, is, perhaps, the old- occupation that requires thought, knowlest of the fine arts. Its origin is various edge, taste, and skill; the promised slipin various nations, and it is one of the pers or sofa cushion are no longer so few arts practiced, more or less imperfect much to be dreaded, and even the afghan, ly, by all savage tribes, from time imme- chair back, and chauffe-pied are assummorial, in one form or other, according to ing artistic importance—things that can the materials available, and the religions not only be tolerated for the sake of assoand customs obtaining. At various pe- ciation, but which we can conscientiously riods of the world's history, and in many admire, and be thankful for. Of course localities, embroidery has reached great many things are embroidered which perfection, and has been made “the ve- should be perfectly plain, if, indeed, as hicle of higher powers than its own" for in the case of a valance for a mantel, all uses, from mere personal adornment they should exist at all; but this lack of to the expression of religious thought. discrimination is incident to all beginTechnically speaking, the palm must be nings, and we may feel certain that the awarded to the Chinese, the Japanese, enthusiasm which has carried the mantel the Hindoos, the Persians, and the Turks; valance to completion will lead to a deand as far as Europe is concerned, the gree of acquirement that will acknowlpractice of embroidery is coeval with the edge its incongruity, and by that time first intercourse with these nations, espe- the heat and soot of the fire will have cially the Persians and Turks, though it rendered it unsightly enough to be conis difficult to determine how great an in- signed to the attic, among the useless acfluence the Egyptians exercised in this re- cumulations of the past. spect over the Greeks and Romans, and If anything permanent and valuable is also from what source the Egyptian em- to result from the present enthusiasm for broideries were derived. However, the art - needlework, it will be the achievemodern interest in embroidery not ment of those who are obliged to find a archæological, and this glance at that market for their labors.
market for their labors. These will soon phase of the subject is sufficient.
discover that while a knowledge of the The present revival of interest in em- South Kensington crewel-work is essenbroidery seems likely to be more perma- tial, it is a small beginning, that all methnent than any that has preceded it, be- ods and all materials are available, and cause it is now something more than a that if the effect aimed at can not be realpassing fashion in dress, as was the case ized by known processes, invention must in England in 1846, when London alone supply the means. The finest modern employed two thousand pair of hands in embroideries I have seen were executed decorating every conceivable article of by ladies who had received no special indress worn by ladies of fashion. Now it struction, but who were endowed with is her own handiwork, the hours of patient the rare quality of mind which accepts stitching, the choice of materials and col- | the value of precedent as a basis for in
we may consider "low” embroidery of three general descriptions : 1st, that in which the material wrought upon governs the work, as in what is called passing, the thread of whatever material being merely run over and under, in the directions of the woven fabric, the various lengths of thread describing a design in parallel lines, the outline of which has been marked upon the stuff.
Of course in an intricate design like Fig. 1, where the thread constantly disappears from the surface, it should continue under
neath till it is brought through again, AUTO
and when these threads on the back are
too long, they should be caught here and Fig. 1.
there with a thread drawn from the manovation. It is not too much to say that terial. in embroidery, as in other fine arts, no In the Levant, this passing is carried to
can achieve great results without the greatest perfection, the lightest gauze more or less aptitude for form and color, fabrics being wrought in gold and silver
threads without the least fraying of
the material, and x
though one would not desire to tempt ladies to destroy their eyesight with such work, it may be noted that diaphanous fabrics such as grenadine are the most effective materials for this work, and the coarser the fabric the
simpler the task. FIG. 2.
BUTTON-JOLE FEATUIER OR
CROSS STITOII. KENSINGTON
LEAF STITCII AND
BATIN PERSIAN FILL-
BOTII SIDES ALIKE.
assiduously applied to a preconceived scheme to which all methods should be subservient. It is in this painstaking inventive genius that the beauty of the Eastern embroideries consists. In them we find every conceivable method of producing effects employed ; and though there are always minor peculiarities that mark the distinction between the work of the several Eastern nations, they all use the three principal methods-i.e., "low" or flat embroidery, “raised” or stuffed embroidery, and "laid" or appliqué embroidery. Under each of these heads there are many varieties, and room for still further invention. In the “low" or flat embroideries the variations can only consist in the nature of the material wrought upon, the nature of the thread used, and the manner of using it. Thus
simpler to baste over the whole surface to be worked a piece of canvas to act as a guide or scale for the stitches, and when the work is complete, this canvas is drawn, thread by thread, leaving the velvet perfectly clean, with the embroidery upon it (Fig. 3). In such work, the variety of stitches is necessarily limited, and no very ambitious artist would condescend to the expedient.
The various known stitches illustrated in Fig. 2 can all be effectively used in "low" embroidery, and with the assistance of “raised" and "laid" methods make the art capable of important expression. Fig. 4 is a specimen of Persian work in silk and gold thread on silk; in this, only two stitches are employed--the chain and a kind of tent stitch in which both sides
are alike. There are two shades of pink and one of blue in the flower and buds, the blue occurring again in the vase, but the outlines, most of the vase, the stems, and tendrils, are of gold, the leaves being filled in with black; the ground is a lustrous sea-green. The illustration is only one of thirty-six patterns forming the border of a plain centre, the whole being four feet long by twenty inches wide, one-third of which surface is covered by the border, that could not have been executed in less than two months' constant labor. The .general tone and form of the patterns are similar, while no two are exactly alike in any respect. This variety in unity is one of the strongest characteristics of Eastern work.