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conversation to the movements of this dancing about me with the utmost impastrange will-o'-the-wisp.

tience during my researches, informed me, “Do you know how much gentlemen when we reached a certain point of the and ladies give me for showing them up outer inclosure, that that was the conseto Dun Ængus? Two and three shil- crated place for paying him, and assured lings,” he continued, on my negative re- me that though he did not speak at all in sponse. And then he eyed me with such his own interest, if I wished for good luck a keen and mercenary expression that II would pay him then and there. was astonished to see it in so young a face. “It's many a shilling,” he said, “you I expressed my surprise at the generosity have given to people-mere robbersof the ladies and gentlemen whom he had while you've been travelling about; but escorted; but this was not to his purpose, all that 'll be so much bad luck to you unfor he asked me point-blank how much I less you pay me well now." With the intended to give him.

respect which I always observe for the "A shilling," I replied.

"Oh," he cried, “no lady or gentleman ever gives me a shilling, but always two or three.”

My reader perceives that it is not always civilization which makes humanity sordid, as he will admit that this child of

MINIU TIMUM nine years displayed ere I bade him goodby a persistent rapacity worthy of the


ह E most accomplished Shylock. Until we arrived at the fort, he strove by every possible artifice and argument-so much beyond his years in skill that I would have believed him an elfish changeling had I been credulous in such matters—to convince me that two shillings was the lowest possible sum I could offer him consistent with my own gentility and his services.

The Dun, or fort, is built on the very edge of a precipice which stands three hundred feet above the sea. It is in horseshoe shape, the open side facing the

DOORWAY, FORT ÆNGUS. sea. It consists of three inclosures, the innermost wall being the thickest; this manners and customs of the country in inclosure measures one hundred and fifty which I travel, I immediately gave him a feet from north to south. About the shilling, which he held between his thumb first century of the Christian era three and finger, and with a look of indignant brothers came from Scotland to Arran, reprobation, his cold eye resting upon me Ængus, Conchovar, and Mil, and their as steadily as that of the Ancient Mariner names are still preserved in connection on the wedding guest, he added, “Is that with buildings on the islands. The walls all you'll give me?" are eight or ten feet thick, built of com- I assured him that it was. “If you'll paratively small unhewn stones, without add twopence,” he said, “good luck will mortar, which manner of construction, be with you; but if you don't, you'll be we are told, affords less resistance to the misfortunate for all the days of your life.” wind, and is more durable, than the ce- I gave him the twopence, which I am mented edifices of later date. There is a sure the wedding guest would have willdoorway in perfect preservation, wherein ingly given the Ancient Mariner to have the admirable ingenuity of the builders is escaped his gimlet eye; and in some fear shown; the immense thickness of the wall, of this indefatigably mercenary child, I and consequently great weight upon the descended the cliffs as the shades of evenlintel, is broken by several gradations, as ing came on. it were, of supports, as shown in my In the twilight I visited Teampull Mic sketch.

Duach, a most interesting ruin, upon the My youthful companion, who had been grounds of a gentleman who rents the




work, but exercised a structive ability not excelled in modern times. There is a window giving a curious example of a primitive kind of pointed arch. Two flat stones form the lintels, so nicely adjusted that, notwithstanding the extreme thickness of the walls, it is to-day as perfect as when constructed thirteen hundred years ago. The origin of the pointed arch has been claimed by many nations, but the best authorities declare that while it was introduced into England and the Continent in the time of the Crusades, probably from the East, it was used in Ireland long before there was any intercourse between the two countries; and Wilkin

son says that though he does larger portion of the island for grazing | not claim that the pointed arch originated his cattle, while he resides elsewhere. in Ireland, it existed there prior to the peHis farmer, or overseer, takes a commend- riod when the pointed style was introable pride in preserving the ruins on his duced through England to that country. master's domain. He told me, with swell- The doorway of this little church is, ing breast, that, although he had only curiously enough, an almost perfect copy lived on this island four years, and was of an entrance to an Egyptian tomb, simnot prejudiced in its favor, he did not be- ple and grand. lieve there could be finer farming land. At the northwestern extremity of the “Potatoes have been grown in the same island are the ruins of the seven churches, ground for over one hundred years, and the cattle reared here, though never housed, and allowed no food save their pasture, take prizes in the English and Irisb fairs." I thought the grazing must be rich, for even when in certain rocky wastes it grows in the fissures of the rocks, the land, if land it may be called, is carefully fenced off, and rented at so much per acre. Indeed, the whole island is fenced off in little plots, from a few yards to half an acre in extent, for no other reason, that I could perceive, than that they knew not what other disposition to make of the stones, although as STONE WINDOW, TEAMPULL MIC DUACH. many were left on the ground as would make a thousand such walls.

lying in a hollow between a little village Teampull Mic Duach is certainly a beau- and the sea. There are portions of two tiful little church. Antiquarians have which are in only a tolerable state of presdecided that it was built in the sixth cen- ervation; others have fallen, leaving an tury, and the enormous undressed stones altar or some piece of carved stone that used in its construction, fitted with admi- belonged to a window or doorway. An rable exactitude, no cement being used, old man issued from a little hovel in the show that the builders of those times not village, having evidently been informed only thought a great deal about their of my arrival by some staring children

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who had retreated at my approach. He small cave; but the old man said it was a saluted me as he hobbled down from holy well, that it was dry just now, but grave to grave, and asked me if I had when the day of the patron saint arever been there before; if not, he might rived it was always full-in the summeras well go with me, for he knew every time. The greatest curiosity he reserved inch of the place, having lived here near- until the last. On an old tombstone was ly eighty years. Between his remarks he placed a rare and beautiful cross, broken would stoop and pluck little wisps of evidently by force, for the stone shows no grass, and brush some old tombstone with signs of decay, the fragments of which he affectionate care, or break the brambles told me had been found in various parts that crept over them.

of these sacred grounds. Seating himself Teampull Brecain, or the Church of St. upon a grave, he related in the most solBrecain, has a chancel of rude masonry, emn manner the history of the search for and a choir that is more modern-when I the pieces-how earnest had been his desay modern in this case, I mean a date of sire to bring together the remains, so that four or five hundred years ago. In this, he could see the fulfillment of prophecy. as nearly all the old churches of Ireland, When St. Brecain preached in this church the principal window is on the east, im- a holy man visited him, and addressed the mediately over the altar. The floor is people; he meant only to say a few words paved with graves, many of the slabs to them, but as he stood by the altar a bearing recent dates, every nook and cor- divine light descended upon him, and ilner being filled with bones of the former luminated his face and breast.

He was occupants, which have been disturbed to l inspired to tell them that they would be give room to newcomers. The Old Mortality who acted as

í my guide slipped through the archway into the chancel, and pointing with his staff to a large stone in the corner, said, with an air of pride, that he had two sons - fine boys — under it. I asked if his name was upon

“No, your honor; but I know they are there, and there was nothing in it but this,” pointing to a fragment of a skull that filled a gap made by a fallen stone.

BH We sauntered about among these relics for a long time, where at every turn something rare presented itself. The Aharla, or sacred inclosure, where only saints were buried, is still visible, with undeciphered inscrip

links tions upon the slabs. A few rags fluttered

some bushes by what I thought was a

Von XLII.-No. 370.-33

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back from these terrible cliffs into the boiling caldron below as white as the driven snow.

Here the Black Fort, as it is called, frowns over a fearful precipice. It resembles Dun Ængus in character, though it is much smaller, and in less perfect preservation.

I observed on the very verge of the cliff two figures manquvring a large rope, as though they were fishing for sea-monsters. As I approached I saw that the end of the rope was attached to no monster, but to a man, who was delving into the crevices for some treasure, and the aerial anglers were moving the rope in accordance with signals made by a wave of his hand. When he arrived at the crevices in which the sea-birds made their homes, he seized dozens of them ere they could escape, and, loaded with his prey, he placed his feet against the perpendicular cliff, and while he was dragged by his

friends above, walked up like a fly. persecuted and beaten, their churches and As I turned my steps homeward, the crosses destroyed, but their religion would noise of the mighty waves as they broke outlive it all, and the crosses would be re- against the cliffs filling my ears, I saw stored piece by piece. “And I have been on the other side allowed to see the truth of it,” he add- of the island the ed; "there is only one piece wanting to waters of the bay, that cross, and it will be found in God's quiet as a lake, reown time."

flecting the rosy A Scotch mist had so much overcome blush of the sun-its national prejudices as to visit Ireland set sky, and wonthe day I started for Teampull Chiarain, dered that the waone of the many churches on this little ters of this great island. Again I encountered a formida- sea could here be ble array of stone fences. I reached the so wild and there church, however-which stands in the so calm. midst of a potato field-after a great deal of difficulty: It is one of the best-preserved on the island, having a beautiful east window, and a striking doorway, which gives an instance of the simple construction and common application of the arch in the various ancient edifices of Ireland, formed in most buildings of two stones only, which appear to have been worked from one, and afterward split in the centre.

The next day I grew weary of the sheltered and inhabited side of the island, for the weather was so soft and balmy that one was invited to the


I sallied forth to where the cliffs present their rocky front as a barrier to the ocean, which in his wrath dashed against them with such mad fury that the surf rose in many places far above them, and the dark and awful green of the sea was thrown


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The results science area bumulative. take all the work of his predecessors, and

, Each scientist starts with the hoarded with it establish a new starting-point for experience of centuries, and knowledge himself. He may study the works of grows by the food handed down to it from Raphael and Da Vinci, and from them gain the granary of the past. The wonderful inspiration, but he can not begin where insight into the secret mysteries of the they ended. If this be true in relation to universe obtained within forty years by sculpture and painting, it is eminently discoveries in electricity, by the photo- true in regard to horticulture. graph, the spectroscope, the telephone, The results of horticulture in the past the phonograph, and other notable inven-are, in a certain sense, cumulative, for by tions, gives evidence unquestioned of the them we have the varieties of form and marvellous power which is preparing for color, and the discovery of a new plant the human race in the centuries to come. is a gain to the plant artist as great as that Art has no aid from this cumulated pow- of a new gem to the jeweller. But in er; it is the product of individual brain, grouping and shaping forms, in contrastaided only by observation of the products ing and harmonizing of colors, and in all of the past. The culture which it requires which the painter or sculptor means by may, however, be the accumulated work art, horticulture is still, and will ever reof generations, and what we call genius main, dependent upon the genius of its may be only the impassioned fervor call- votaries, aided only, as the painter is aided out by that culture.

ed, by study of the works of the past.

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