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too cold, and in the summer the sunshine writers: the flora of the region, its minwas too brilliant, on his Northern isl- eralogy, the Indians and their history, and, for mystical thoughts. At present, the lost grave of Father Marquette (in through Tita's recitation, his mind was these later days said to have been found), occupied with a poor fisherman's family the legends of the fur-trading times, the over on the mainland, to whom on the existing commerce of the lakes, the fishmorrow he was going to send assistance. eries, and kindred subjects were mixed The three boys came around on the out- with discussions kept up with fellow Latside, and peered through the windows to in and Greek scholars exiled at far-off see whether the lesson was finished. Anne Southern stations, with games of chess ordered them back by gesture, for they played by letter, with recipes for sauces, were bareheaded, and their little faces red and with humorous skirmishing with with the cold.But they pressed their New York priests on topics of the day, in noses against the panes, glared at Tita, which the Northern hermit often had the and shook their fists. “It's all ready,

best of it. they said, in sepulchral tones, putting A hurrah in the kitchen, an opening of their mouths to the crack under the sash, doors, a clattering in the hall, and the “and it's a pudding. Tell her to hurry boys appeared, followed by old Pierre, up, Annet.”

bearing aloft a pudding enveloped in But Tita's murmuring voice went stead steam, exhaling fragrance, and beautiful ily on, and the Protestant sister would with raisins, currants, and citron-rarinot interrupt the little Catholic's recita- ties regarded by Louis, Gabriel, and André tion; she shook her head at the boys, and with eager eyes. motioned to them to go back to the kitch- *But it was for your dinner,” said Anne. en. But they danced up and down to “It is still for my dinner. But it would warm themselves, rubbed their little red have lasted three days, and now it will ears with their hands, and then returned end its existence more honorably in one," to the crack, and roared in chorus, “Tell replied the priest, beginning to cut generher to hurry up; we shall not have time ous slices. to eat it.”

Tita was the last to come forward. She " True,” said Père Michaux, overhear- felt lierself obliged to set down all the ing this triple remonstrance. “That will marks of her various recitations in a do for to-day, Tita."

small note-book after each lesson; she But I have not finished, my father.” kept a careful record, and punished or reAnother time, child."

warded herself accordingly, the punish“I shall recite it, then, at the next les ments being long readings from some reson, and learn besides as much more; and ligious book in her corner, murmured the interruption was not of my making, generally half aloud, to the exasperation' but a crime of those sacrilegious boys, of Miss Lois when she happened to be said Tita, gathering her books together. present, Miss Lois having a vehement disThe boys, seeing Père Michaux rise from like for “sing-song." Indeed, the little, his chair, ran back around the house to soft, persistent murmur sometimes made announce the tidings to Pierre; the priest even Anne think that the whole family came forward to the window.

bore their part in Tita's religious penances. “That is the mail-train, is it not ?'' said But what could be said to the child? Was Anne, looking at a black spot coming up she not engaged in saving her soul? the Strait from the east.

The marks being at last all set down, “It is due," said Père Michaux; “but she took her share of pudding to the fire, the weather has been so cold that I hard- and ate it daintily and dreamily, enjoying ly expected it to-day.” He took down a it far more than the boys, who swallowed spy-glass, and looked at the moving speck. too hastily; far more than Anne, who liked "Yes, it is the train. I can see the dogs, the simplest food. The priest was the and Denis himself. I will go over to only one present who appreciated Pierre's the village with you, I think. I expect skill as Tita appreciated it. “It is déliletters."

cieux," she said, softly, replacing the Père Michaux's correspondence was spoon in the saucer, and leaning back large. From many a college and mis- against the cushions with half-closed eyes. sion station came letters to this hermit of "Will you have some more, then ?" the North, on subjects as various as the said Anne.

Tita shook her head, and waved away | mail - train advancing rapidly from the her sister impatiently.

east in a straight line. “She is as thorough an epicure as I “Denis is determined to have a good am," said the priest, smiling; "it takes supper and sleep to-night,” said Père Miaway from the poetry of a dish to be ask-chaux ; “no camp to make in the snow ed to eat more.

this evening.” Some minutes later the It was now time to start homeward, and mail-train passed, the gaunt old dogs Père Michaux's sledge made its appear which drew the sledge never even turnance, coming from a little islet near by. ing their heads to gaze at the party, but Old Pierre would not have dogs upon his keeping straight on, having come in a dishores; yet he went over to the other rect line, without a break, from the point, island himself every morning, at the ex- ten miles distant. The young dogs in pense of much time and trouble, to see Antoine's team pricked up their ears, and that the half-breed in charge had not neg- betrayed a disposition to rush after the lected them. The result was that Père mail-train; then René and Lebeau, after Michaux's dogs were known as far as they looking around once or twice, after turncould be seen by their fat sides, the only ing in their great paws more than usual rotundities in dog-flesh within a circle of as they walked, and holding back resolutefive hundred miles. Père Michaux wish ly, at length sat deliberately down on ed to take Tita with him in his sledge, in their haunches, and stopped the sledge. order that Anne might ride also; but the “And thou art entirely right, René, young girl declined with a smile, saying and thou too, Lebeau," said old Antoine. that she liked the walk.

To waste breath following a mail-train "Do not wait for us, sir," she said; at a gallop is worthy only of young-dog 'your dogs can go much faster than silliness."" ours."

So saying he administered to the recreBut the priest preferred to make the ant members of the team enough chastisejourney in company with them; and they ment to make them forget the very existall started together from the house door, ence of mail-trains, while René and LeWhere Pierre stood in his red skull-cap, beau waited composedly to see justice bowing farewell. The sledges glided done; they then rose in a dignified mandown the little slope to the beach, and ner and started on, the younger dogs folshot out on the white ice, the two drivers lowing now with abject humility. As keeping by the side of their teams, the they came nearer the village the western boys racing along in advance, and Anne pass opened out before them, a long narwalking with her quick elastic step by the row vista of ice, with the dark shore-line side of Père Michaux's conveyance, talk-on each side, and the glow of the red suning to him with the animation which al-set shining strangely through, as though ways came to her in the open air. The it came from a tropical country beyond. color mounted in her cheeks; with her A sledge was crossing down in the westhead held erect she seemed to breathe with a moving speck; the scene was as wild delight, and to rejoice in the clear sky, and arctic as if they had been travelling on the cold, the crisp sound of her own foot- Baffin Bay. The busy priest gave little steps, while her eyes followed the cliffs of attention to the scene, and the others in the shore - line crowned with evergreens all the winters of their lives had seen --savage cliffs which the short summer nothing else: to the Bedouins the great could hardly soften. The sun sank to- desert is nothing. Anne noted every feaward the west, the air grew colder; Tita ture and hue of the picture, but uncondrew the furs over her head, and vanished sciously. She saw it all, but without a from sight, riding along in her nest half comment. Still, she saw it. She was to asleep, listening to the bells. The boys see it again many times in after-yearsstill ran and pranced, but more, perhaps, see it in cities, in lighted drawing-rooms, from a sense of honor than from natural | in gladness, and in sorrow, and more than hilarity. They were more exact in tak- once through a mist of tears. ing their turns in the sledge now, and Later in the evening, when the moon more slow in coming out from the furs was shining brightly, and she was on her upon call; still, they kept on. As the way home from the church-house with track turned little by little, following the Rast, she saw a sledge moving toward the line of the shore, they came nearer to the northern point. “There is Père Mi.

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chaux, on his way home,” she said. | ment of certain bits of wood, which are Then, after a moment, “Do you know, planed, filed, saw-cut, scratched, sand-paRast, he thinks me dull."

pered, carved, pegged, glued, and var“He would not if he had seen you this nished; but to give it the soul requires the evening," replied her companion.

highest capability of human intelligence. A deep flush, visible even in the moon- Hands must work in a material which, light, came into the girl's face. “Do not though easier to cut than metal, can not ask me to recite again,” she pleaded; “I be kept up to the same degree of precision. can not. You must let me do what I feel Fingers must be subservient to brain. is right.”

For a guide you must have the fine ap"What is there wrong in reciting preciation of tone quality. If with meShakspeare ?"

chanical dexterity you possess the ne“I do not know. But something comes cessary fineness of ear, your wooden case over me at times, and I am almost swept will give out the sound of a Guarneaway.

I can not bear to think of the feel- rius, a Steiner, or an Amati. The trick ing.”

of it all is so subtle that he who makes “Then don't,” said Rast.

a good violin is no longer a servile imi“You do not understand me."

tator. A commonplace instrument may “I don't believe you understand your be quite within the scope of a good patself; girls seldom do."

tern-maker, but a really fine violin, such "Why?"

as a great soloist will accept, one per“Let me beg you not to fall into the fect throughout the whole register, one power of that uncomfortable word, An- that responds to the least touch of the finnet. Walters says women of the world ger, that makes a pure and unalloyed never use it. They never ask a single sound, with the tone quality, whether you question."

just touch it, or rasp it with your bowBut how can they learn, then ?" well, that is nothing less than a chef

“By observation,” replied young Pro- d'auvre. Why, there are only four peonando, oracularly.

ple to-day in the world who can turn you out such an instrument.

The quality of tone must come first; the SOME GREAT VIOLINS.

looks of the violin are secondary. Here is 'N Pavia, many years ago, a great soloist Ole Bull's Gaspar di Salo. The grand old

master has just put it on the table before

me. The violin is still warm from the 'Paganini farà sentire il suo violino."

nervous hand of the performer, and its final Discarding the florid style of concert pro- vibration has not yet ceased. Though I regrammes, this sentence, literally transla- member that adage, “Love me, love my ted, would mean, “Paganini will cause his dog," and trusting to be always in the violin to be heard." But taking sentire good graces of Ole Bull, I think this Gasin its more primitive sense, the head-line par di Salo is as ugly a violin as I ever saw. might thus be rendered, “Paganini will Its outline is uneven; on its face the varmake his violin be felt.” Does this not nish is of an ugly brown; on the back it sound like homage paid by a musician to is much better. If the wildest of violin his instrument? That finely organized virtuosi, those who go for looks, were to cerebral tissue, that marvellous digital see this violin hanging in a pawnbroker's dexterity, that muscular power, all these shop in Chatham Street, they would pass gifts Paganini was conscious of possess- it by without a second look. I examine ing, yet in his estimation that box of wood it more closely. I have been delighted with its catgut strings demanded a recog- with its masculine, robust sound. I am, nition, and had to be individualized. If as far as my ears go, positive it has the there came to greet his performance great great tone quality. I call on my reasonsalvos of applause, so much was due to ing faculties, and argue over the instru-his brain and fingers, but then a certain ment, just as if, in an archæological study, portion of the vivas was to be allotted to I wanted to get at the idea of some primithe violin.

tive shape. I soon find that something Violin making in its perfection is one which this violin has impressed on all fuof the most difficult of callings. It is ap- ture makers of violins. The master plays parently nothing more than the adjust- the instrument for me again and again.

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I may not like it quite as much as an Ama- | as when it was made. It once belonged ti I am intimately acquainted with, but I to Dancla, a well-known professor of the am delighted with its amazing tone. Just Conservatoire. Inside is the label: “Nicoas Ole Bull says—“It is not so loud, but laus Amati. Cremona. Hieronymus, Fil reaches so far.” I must respect it, for I ac Antonium Nepos fecit 1661." I do not am positive that, made some time between always lay great stress on labels, for there 1560 and 1610, this violin laid down the is nothing easier than to counterfeit these rule of tone quality which we have loved bits of paper, but this one is authentic from that time until now.

every way. Even if the ticket were wantI am indebted to Ole Bull for the pho- ing, the violin would be an Amati. It is tographs of his Gaspar di Salo, which has the most graceful of instruments, and certainly a more distinguished history though in constant use, is admirable for than any other instrument in the world. its purity and limpidity of tone. These Gaspar di Salo made it, and Benvenuto Amatis were a whole family of violin makCellini carved the scroll. This is the vio- ers, and of them all Nicholas was the most lin known for years as the Treasury violin distinguished. Amati necks and scrolls of Innspruck. I have read innumerable may be copied with advantage, and the descriptions of this violin, in the prepara- illustration shows their peculiar grace. tion of this article, and must declare that To obtain my Straduarius was no easy all accounts of the instrument are defi- task. I never was aware before I undercient, because the examination was made took violin tracking that there were so through the glass of a case. This Gaspar many “Strads” in New York—at least in di Salo is the acme of work, and is abso- the opinion of violin players. When I lutely perfect in all its details. Mechan- noted down the number of professionical execution combined with art can not als and amateurs who had “Strads,” I go further. Its varnish is peculiar, very became for a while almost sure that some light, uniform, and there are no dark time toward the close of the seventeenth shades on it. From the ornamentation century Anthony Straduarius must have on it one would think it to be undersized, commenced shipping his violins by the and it has been so described; but it is quite crateful to America. I soon narrowed a full model. Its preservation is perfect. down my list from hundreds to ten, and The carved head has been daintily color of these ten I had to expunge from my ed. Had viols been in vogue when the list nine, until but one was left. This Queen of Sheba came to Solomon, and had notable instrument, which the illustration the king the musical accomplishments of shows, is a Simon Pure Straduarius, and David, he would have played her a sere- belongs to H. C. Havemeyer, Esq., of New nade on it. Violin enthusiasts get crazed York. I suppose its date is of about 1700. about old scrolls. Did they see this Ben- Somehow or other Straduarius has fallen venuto head, with its graceful carving, from grace within the last fifteen years, why, then their delirium might be for- and why I can not tell. He lived to be given. I suppose it was made about 1590. past ninety, and possibly in his old age

Ole Bull made his debut in the United some one else made violins for him, and States with this noted instrument, but it is, they were not good. perhaps, too delicate for constant concert I come now to violins made by Giuwork. I can not call it a parade violin. seppe Antonius Guarnerius. Joseph, it I heard it many years ago.

I rather ob- is said, had Straduarius for a master, and ject to mentioning values, as the prices of Joseph profited thereby. But genius is violins are not quotable like stocks, but eccentric, and Guarnerius took to drink, I think that if Ole Bull were to ask and made the superbest violins when he $10,000 for this Gaspar di Salo-Benvenuto was sober, and the meanest ones when he Cellini, a telegraphic dispatch from a cer- was tipsy. But if you ever do get a Giutain city in the United States would beat seppe Guarnerius, made when he was in a by two weeks or so the half-dozen offers normal condition, you have the choicest of purchase which would come from Eng- instrument, according to my belief, that land.

ever was made. I offer what I believe to be the best I venture to say that the traditions type of the Nicholas Amati in the United of the violin maker's art had not been States. It is the property of Dr. S. B. lost. When Vuillaume died in France Tuthill, of Brooklyn, and is just as perfect in 1873, a great master luthier passed

away. I thought then that there was no quality of sound—that precise tone qual-
man who could take his place. Some ity that I have been harping about. These
years ago, however, I insisted that we violins are not only “those eye violins"
had a very wonderful violin maker in Mr. Charles Reade writes about so clever-
the United States. Such an announce- ly in his Lost Art Revived, but they are
ment caused some little surprise, and al- ear violins. My pictures of violins would
though not held then exactly to task for not be complete if I did not give an illus-
such an opinion, what I had written was tration of a Colton instrument, a strict
much commented upon. Since that time copy of a Guarnerius, owned by Mr. H.
-1878—I am happy to state that my judg. Havemeyer, of New York.
ment has not only received the corrobora- Some one might ask me, “How can
tion of the most distinguished foreign in- you tell whether American instruments
strumentalists who have come to this coun- are up to the Italian standards ?” My
try, but that leading experts who write on answer would be quite a practicable one.
these topics, and know about what they Here is a standard, an Amati, a Steiner,
write, have confirmed my opinion. It and a Guarnerius. If you have the ear,
may be that special ingenuity in tool and one of these old violins is played upon,
making has helped in the task, but I all you have to do is to listen. Then try
must put aside this purely material por- the American violin, and if it is not as
tion of violin making, and insist that Mr. good in sound, why, reject it. As to the
W. E. Colton never could have made his material differences, the imitative art,
instruments without absolute familiarity neither you nor I can find that out. The
with the tone qualities of all the great vi- biography of the instrument is written on
olins of the world. It is possible for a its face. Here is the beginner's careless
self-taught artist to paint a picture, even work, where the novice hammered on it,
if he has never seen an old master, but a and tripped over the violin with his bow.
violin maker who has never heard the Here are the marks when the strings
instruments of Italy can not create the were overstretched and flew in twain, and
sound of the Cremonese or Brescians. dragged the knot, making furrows and
Without having listened to the nightin- scars. Just here is where hundreds of
gale, it were folly for any one to try and wet or greasy or unshaven jowls have
invent this bird-song. Does this maker moistened, soaked, or scratched the right-
dare to turn out a violin that looks as hand top, or where millions of slidings of
new as a loaf of fresh bread ? Such is hands have used up the marrow of the
the stupidity of public opinion that the wood. That split! That is where it cross-
musical world will have and must have a ed the Apennines, and case and violin
violin that shall look three hundred years were splintered by the kick of a mule.
old. What is good about a violin is its When the performer was playing a sere-
age, people think, and I suppose this idea nade in Venice, a rival came, and used a
could never be displaced by any amount bludgeon and beat down the musicians,
of reasoning

and that splintering came from it. That
Of course, then, these Colton violins are is where the mice gnawed into its edge,
old. Unless they looked as old as time, when the violin was put to rest and for-
outside, musical wiseacres might not ap- gotten for twenty-five years, for the own-
preciate them; but, inside, he refuses to er was one of the king's violin players,
tamper with his violin. Outside, they are and had his head cut off on that account.
of the time of Henry of Navarre; inside, Here is where the former possessor of the
of the period of President Hayes. I defy instrument went mad from overwork and
any human being, even those keen and privation, and dashed the violin on the
astute English, French, or German vio- floor in his frenzy. Here is where the
lin sellers, to determine the difference be- artist's much-loved children, in an un-
tween an instrument fashioned yester- lucky moment, played the mischief with
day in Brooklyn and one made in Cre- it. Here are all the traces of an existence
mona in 1700. Shape, color, varnish, from of three hundred years; all that, either
all the shades of yellow to glorious red, are comic or tragic, must happen to any violin
found in these instruments. The trick of during a long lapse of time—and a month
age is perfect. With these Brooklyn vio- ago this instrument was only in the rough
lins, it is not the old looks alone which blocks of wood !
please the connoisseur, but it is their great That brave old Gaspar di Salo, the


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