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by Parliament for any purpose whatever | isters, judges, and others, is also charged except at the demand of the crown. No to the Consolidated Fund, and the remainpetition even for any sum of money re- der is paid into the exchequer to defray lating to the public service can be re- the expenses of the army, navy, and civil ceived by Parliament unless recommend service. ed by the crown. On the other hand, no With regard to the power of the Queen person can lend money to the crown, or to declare war, it may be said that such a to any department of state, without the power is a barren one in her hands, for sanction of Parliament, and all money not only is it impossible to carry on a war transactions between the Bank of England without a vote of money and supplies by and the Treasury are expressly forbidden. Parliament, but the number of men to be The Commons, of course, have the power employed in the army and navy is annuof withholding supplies, but only once (in ally fixed by Parliament; and it is a di1784) since the Revolution of 1688 has this rect violation of the constitution for the power been exercised. There have been crown to raise more men for the land and instances of expenditure of money with sea forces than Parliament has voted. It out the knowledge of Parliament, but will thus be seen how limited the power these have been rare, and only when a of the Queen is, and how dependent she is public exigency existed. At the begin- in all her acts on the approval of a Parlianing of the French Revolution Mr. Pitt ment representing the feelings, opinions, advanced £1,200,000 to Germany, and in and will of the people. She can appoint 1859–60 there was an excess of expendi- her ministers to administer the governture of more than £1,000,000. To meet ment, but whenever the Ministry is dethese unforeseen disbursements provision feated in the House of Commons on imis made by means of the Treasury Chest and portant measures it goes out of office, and the Civil Contingencies Fund. The Trea- another Ministry is appointed whose poli

is a fund maintained to supply cy is more in accord with public opinion specie required by the Treasury Chests of as represented by the Commons. The colonies, and to make the necessary ad- Ministry, however, when defeated, may vances for carrying on the public service advise the crown to dissolve Parliament at the various military and naval stations, and appeal to the people, who by a new and is limited to £1,300,000. The Civil election may either return a majority faContingencies Fund is limited to £120,000, vorable or opposed to their measures. and is for the purpose of defraying un- Thus it will be seen that, after all, England foreseen expenditures for civil service at is governed by the people through the home. The revenue, or annual income Commons, and not by the crown. of the country, derived from taxes im- That part of the government which is posed by Parliament, and from the in-called the Ministry is more complicated in come of certain estates which are called its structure, and more difficult to undercrown lands, is collected into a fund called stand and define, than any other in that the Consolidated Fund. The first charge wonderful piece of intricate machinery. on this fund is the interest on the national What is commonly called the Ministry debt, called the funds, and on the un- has never been recognized by law, but funded debt. The next charge is the grew out of the custom of a few of the civil list-an allowance to the Queen for Privy or King's Council meeting in the the support of her household and the dig- royal cabinet and assuming the power of nity of the crown. This is fixed by stat- advising the crown on important meaute at £385,000, to be paid annually, for sures of government. The real name of the following purposes : her Majesty's what we call the Ministry is the Cabinet, privy purse, £60,000; salaries of her house- or Cabinet Council, as the history of its hold and retired allowances, £131,000; ex- origin implies. The only council required pense of the household, £172,500; royal by law is the Privy Council

, and when bounty and special services, £13,200; and official announcement is made of the the remainder for pensions and miscella- members of the cabinet they are neous expenses.

On the Consolidated nounced simply as members of that counFund are also charged various salaries al-cil appointed to fill certain offices. The lowed to members of the royal family. Privy Council of England is coeval with The sum for carrying on the civil govern- its monarchy, but as the custom of conment, including the salaries of the min-| fiding advice and counsel to the cabinet


has grown, its powers have largely dimin- | the cabinet, constitute the chief members ished, and the whole council has not been of the administration. The practice of convened since 1839. The Privy Council-consulting a few members of the Privy lors are appointed, without limit to their Council had existed, as has been said, for number, by the sovereign, and they may a long period, but the first allusion to the be dismissed, or the council may be dis- cabinet council occurs in the reign of solved, at the royal pleasure. No qualifica- Charles I. It was extremely unpopular tion is necessary except that they shall be at first, and it was not till 1783 that it was native-born subjects of Great Britain, and regulated by those rules which it now ena disability in this respect may be removed forces. Formerly the King met with the by an act of Parliament, as it was in the Ministry; but at the accession of George cases of Prince Albert and the King of the I., the first Hanoverian prince on the Belgians. The Privy Council consists of throne of England, the practice was disthe members of the royal family, the Arch- continued, merely because he was unable bishops of York and Canterbury, the Bish- to speak or understand the English lanop of London, the cabinet ministers ex guage. The free and unrestrained disoficio, the Lord Chancellor, the chief offi- cussion of measures in his absence proved cers of the royal household, the Judges of so beneficial that the old practice has nevthe Courts of Equity, the Chief Justices of er been revived. Before that time the the Courts of Common Law, the Ecclesi- cabinet was not necessarily composed of astical and Admiralty Judges, the Judge men of similar judgment and principles, Advocate, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and at times there were at the same board the Speaker of the House of Commons, Whigs and Tories, and High-Churchimen the Ambassadors and the chief Minis- and Dissenters, and it was no uncommon ters Plenipotentiary, the Governors of thing for colleagues to take opposite sides the chief colonies, the Comruander-in- in Parliament. But since 1812 it has been chief, the Vice-President of the Commit- an established principle that all cabinets tee of Council for Education, and such are to be constructed on some basis of poothers as the crown may appoint. A litical union agreed upon by the members Privy Councillor is styled Right Honor- when they accept office. It is also disable, and takes precedence of all baronets, tinctly understood that members are jointknights, and younger sons of viscounts ly and personally responsible for each and barons. It was in the reign of Hen- other's acts, and that on the resignation ry VI. that the King's Council first as- of the Prime Minister his colleagues shall sumed the name of Privy Council, and it resign also. It is, of course, well known was also during the minority of that King that the crown in organizing a cabinet that a select council gradually emerged only appoints the Premier, and that the from the larger body, which ultimately other members are selected by him, and resulted in the modern cabinet. In ear- always, except in rare cases, without diclier times it was wholly subservient to tation from the crown. The first instance the will of the monarch, and was often of the resignation of a Prime Minister rethe instrument of unconstitutional and sulting from an adverse vote of the Comarbitrary proceedings. Since the Revolu- mons was in the case of Sir Robert Waltion it has lost much of its dignity, and pole; and the resignation of the Ministry now the only relic of its authority in of Lord North, under George III., was the criminal matters is its power of taking first instance of a simultaneous change of examinations and issuing commitments the whole administration in deference to for treason. It still, however, continues the opinion of the Commons. From that to exercise an original jurisdiction in ad-time, however, a change of Ministry has vising the crown concerning the grants been simultaneous and complete. The of charters, and it has assumed exclusive number of those constituting the cabinet appellate jurisdiction over the colonies and is indefinite. The members who ex officio dependencies of the crown. Theoretically constitute the cabinet are the Prime Minthe Privy Council retains its ancient su- ister (or First Lord of the Treasury), the premacy, and in a constitutional point of Lord High Chancellor, the Lord Presiview is presumed to be the only legal and dent of the Council, the Lord Privy Seal, responsible council of the crown. The the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Sec Ministry proper, or rather those members retary of State for Foreign Affairs, tho of the Privy Council who are members of Secretary of State for Home Department, the Secretary of State for Colonies, the responsible for the disposal of the entire Secretary of State for War, the Secretary patronage of the crown, selects all his colof State for India, the First Lord of the leagues, and can insist upon a decision of Admiralty, the President of the Board of the cabinet upon any measure in accordTrade, and sometimes the Chancellor of ance with his own views, inasmuch as he the Duchy of Lancaster, the First Com- has the power of dissolving it by his own missioner of Works, the President of the resignation. Ordinary questions, howevLocal Government Board, the Postmas- er, are decided in the cabinet by a vote. ter-General, and the Chief Secretary for The Lord Chancellor, the next in order Ireland.

in the cabinet, is, with the exception of the The present cabinet is composed of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the highest offollowing members:

ficer in the realm. The name Chancellor First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the is derived from the word cancellarius-a Excliequer—Right IIon. William E. Gladstone. notary or scribe, as the Chancellor once Lord Chancellor-Lord Selborne.

was--because he sat behind a lattice (called Lord President of the Council-Earl Spencer.

in Latin cancellus), to avoid being crowdLord Privy Seal-Duke of Argyll. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs—Earl Gran. ed by the people. He is ex officio a memville.

ber of the Privy Council, cabinet minister, Secretary of State for India-Marquis of Hart. and Prolocutor of the House of Lords. ington.

To him belongs the appointment of all Secretary of State for Iome Department-Sir W. justices of the peace, and he is the patron Vernon Harcourt.

Secretary of State for Colonies-Earl of Kimberly. of all the King's livings under the value

Secretary of State for War-Right Hon. Hugh C. of £20 per annum. He is the guardian of E. Childers.

all infants, idiots, and lunatics, and has First Lord of the Admiralty-Earl of Northbrook: the general superintendence of all chari

Chief Secretary for Ireland-Right Hon. W. E. Forster.

table uses in the kingdom. All this is Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster-Right IIon. in addition to the extensive jurisdiction John Briglit.

which he exercises in his judicial capaciPresident of Local Gov. Board - Mr. Dodson.

ty in the Court of Chancery. In former President of Board of Trade-Mr. Chamberlain.

times he was Prime Minister, but since the Like the cabinet, the office of Prime Earl of Clarendon held both offices in the Minister is unknown to the law and con- reign of Charles II., the Lord Chancellor stitution. He is simply the member of has never been Premier. the cabinet who especially possesses the The Lord President of the Council, the confidence of the crown, and may be ei-third member of the cabinet, is the prether a Peer or a Commoner. Lord Rock- siding officer of the Privy Council, and ingham in 1765, the Duke of Portland in holds his position in the Ministry by vir1782, and Mr. Addington in 1812 had nev- tue of that position. He sits next to the er held any office when they were ap- sovereign at the council table, to propose pointed Prime Ministers. Lord Bute be- the business to be enacted, and has genercame Premier before he had even spoken al superintendence and control of the dein Parliament, and Mr. Pitt was Prime partment of education. The Lord Privy Minister at the age of twenty-four. Be- Seal has charge of the Privy Seal, and fore 1806 the Premiership was occasional. his duties are mainly to affix the seal to ly held in connection with the office of grants, appointments, creation of honors, Chancellor of the Exchequer, or Secretary and to patents of inventions. He is also of State, or Lord Chancellor, but it is now

the office of the First Lord of the Treasury. entire control and management of all matThe First Lord of the Treasury does not, ters relating to the receipt and expendiof course, confine himself to the depart-ture of public money, including even the mental business of the Treasury, but must private revenues of the Queen. He lays be cognizant of all matters of real impor before the House of Commons an annual tance that take place in the different de statement of the estimated expenses of the partments. He is the medium between government, and of the ways and means the cabinet and the sovereign, and is ex- by which it is proposed to meet them. pected to be present almost continually in this statement has long been known as Parliament to explain and defend the pol- the annual budget, from the French word icy of the government. He is virtually bougette, or bag. Formerly he was the principal officer of the Court of Excheq-mercial relations with the colonies, and uer, but he now has little connection with the Treasury as to contemplated alterait, only taking his seat with the Bar- tions in the customs and excise laws. ons at the annual nomination of sheriffs. This, then, is the cabinet of ministers, At the court, which is held once in six to whom the executive powers of the years, “ for the trial of the pyx,” for de- crown are intrusted. They must sit in termining the weight and fineness of the Parliament, where the support or defeat gold and silver coins issued from the of their policy will either prolong their Mint, in the absence of the Lord Chancel- term of office or compel them to resign. lor he presides, and delivers a charge to If Parliament declares by an adverse vote the pyx jury.

that it can no longer follow the ministers, Next to the Chancellor of the Exchequer a change must take place. Thus it will come the Secretaries of State, whose du- be seen that the people, through the Comties are plainly indicated by their titles. mons, are the rulers, and not the Ministry. They are the Home Secretary, who con- The Queen appoints the Prime Minister; trols all matters relating to the internal he appoints his colleagues, and the success affairs of Great Britain and Ireland, the of their policy must depend on the Lords internal peace of the United Kingdom, and Commons. The ultimate verdict on the security of the laws, and the gener- every exercise of political power must be al superintendence of the administration sought in the House of Commons, and the of criminal justice; the Secretary for For- House of Commons means the people. eign Affairs, who is the official organ of The elasticity of such a government must the crown in all communications between be apparent. The Queen has no policy; Great Britain and foreign powers ; the her impersonality is absolute; she is Whig Secretary for the Colonies, who superin- or Tory as her Ministry represents either tends the government of the various co- of these political parties, and the complexlonial possessions, appoints their Govern- ion of the Ministry is shaped and toned by ors, and makes such recommendations the voice of the people. There can be no and suggestions as may be expedient to continued antagonism between the adminassist the deliberations of the colonial istration and Parliament, clogging the councils, and to promote the welfare of wheels and disturbing the whole machincolonial subjects; the Secretary for War, ery of legislation, for the Ministry must in whose hands the supreme and respon- either yield to the wishes of Parliament or sible authority over the whole military resign and give place to a cabinet reprebusiness of the country is placed; and senting its views and policy. the Secretary for India, who possesses all The House of Lords is composed of the the powers once exercised by the East lords spiritual and temporal. In the reign India Company and the Board of Con- of Henry III. 123 prelates and only 23 temtrol. Next comes the First Lord of the poral lords composed the House. At the Admiralty. The Admiralty consists of time of Henry VIII. the spiritual and temthe First Lord and four Junior Lords, poral lords were about equal in number. who are called the Lords of the Admiral. At the present time the spiritual lords are ty. They conduct the administration of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York the entire naval force of the empire, both and 24 bishops of the Church of England. at home and abroad, command the royal They are lords of Parliament only, and marines, control the royal dock-yards, and not peers. The lords temporal are dukes, have an exclusive jurisdiction over har- marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons, bors and inlets throughout the kingdom. whose titles are all hereditary. The title After the First Lord of the Admiralty of duke was first conferred on Edward the comes the President of the Board of Trade, Black Prince, whom Edward III. created whose duty it is to take cognizance of all Duke of Cornwall. Marquises were origimatters relating to trade and commerce, nally lords of the marches, or borders, and to protect the mercantile interests of and derived their title from the offices held the kingdom; to advise the Foreign Office by them. The first who was created a in commercial matters arising out of trea- marquis was Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxties or negotiations with foreign powers, ford, in 1198. Earls were in existence bethe Home Office with respect to the grant fore the Conquest, under the title of ealdorand provisions of letters patent, the Colo- men, and to these lords the administranial Office upon questions affecting com- tion of the shires was committed. After

the Conquest they were called counts, and itual lords and the administrative party hence the shires were called counties. sit on the right, the opposition on the left, Viscounts were first created in the reign and the neutrals on cross benches between of Henry VI., and the title of baron was the two. A quorum of the Lords is three, in existence long before the Norman Con- and important measures are often passed quest. The number of the House of Lords with less than twenty members present. is not limited. In the reign of Henry Though the House of Lords has no power VII. the temporal peers were only 29; to originate money bills, it has a perfect at the death of Elizabeth they were in- right to initiate other measures-a right creased to 60; the Stuarts raised the num- so rarely exercised, however, that it is ber to 150, which William III. and Queen now generally understood that the provAnne still further increased to 168. On ince of the Peers is chiefly to control and the union of Scotland in 1707, 16 peers amend projects of legislation which emaof Scotland were added; and on the nate from the Commons. The most disunion of Ireland in 1800, 28 peers of Ire- tinguishing feature of the Lords is their land. Since that time numerous addi- judicature, which relates to the trial of tions have been made, so that at the pres- peers, claims of peerage and offices of ent time, in addition to 26 lords spiritual, honor, and contested elections of peers

of there are sitting in the House of Lords Scotland and Ireland. They constitute 5 peers of the blood royal, 21 dukes, the supreme court of judicature, the tri19 marquises, 113 earls, 24 viscounts, 250 bunal of appeal in the last resort, and the barons, 14 Scottish representative peers court for trial of cases of impeachment. elected for each Parliament, and 28 Irish Though apparently a branch of the govelected for life-making a total in the ernment representing the aristocracy, so House of 500 lords spiritual and temporal. far from being an element from which Though the titles of the lords are heredi- danger may arise to the liberties of the tary, the peerage is constantly undergoing people, the House of Lords serves only as changes, resulting from extinctions and a wholesome regulator to the legislation additions. Of the sixty peerages in exist of the Commons. ence at the death of Elizabeth, forty are So much space has been devoted to a now extinct. The blood of the people is review of the powers of the Queen, Minisconstantly finding its way into the chan- try, and House of Lords, that but little is nels of the peerage, and new and fresh left for the House of Commons. Though elements are taking the place of those its members have always been elected, yet which have died out and disappeared. from 1688 to 1832 its control was really in Drapers, tailors, apothecaries, wool-deal- the hands of the great governing families. ers, silk-workers, merchants, jewellers, The Reform Bill of 1832 and the Housegoldsmiths, tradesmen, barbers, coal-deal- hold Suffrage Act of 1867 transferred it to ers, money - lenders, and manufacturers the middle classes. From the Restoration were ancestors of many who now boast to George III. the condition of the repreof their noble blood. The most striking sentative system, as connected with elecinstances are those of Lord Tenterden, the tions for the Commons, was demoralized grandson of a barber; Lord Gifford, the and corrupt. Corporations usurped the son of a grocer; Lord Beaconsfield, the franchises of their boroughs, so that a large son of an author; Lord Truro, the son of number became what are called close, or a tradesman, who married the cousin of rotten boroughs, or boroughs in the hands the Queen; Lord Eldon, the son of a coal of limited and self-appointed bodies. Then agent; Lord Clyde, the son of a cabinet- there was another large class of boroughs, maker; Lord Ellenborough, the son of a called nomination boroughs, which were country clergyman ; Lord Ashburton, a the absolute property of individuals, who merchant; and Lord Lyndhurst, the son disposed of the representation at pleasure. of a portrait painter, the American Copley. It has been stated that at one time 84 per

In the House of Lords is the throne oc- sons sent 154 members to Parliament. cupied by the Queen at the opening of The Reform Bill of 1832 took away 143 Parliament, and in front of the throne is seats from 56 disfranchised and 32 partly the woolsack occupied by the Lord Chan- disfranchised boroughs. Of these seats cellor-a sort of ottoman with a sack of 64 were given to 42 new boroughs, and 65 wool for a seat, an emblem of the source to fresh divisions of the counties. The of England's national wealth. The spir- remainder were distributed between Scot

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