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Fig. 2. Portion of the cornea, showing the lenses,

with subjacent colouring-matter.
Fig. 3. Section of the eye, showing the arrangement

of the lenses and nerves.
Fig. 4. Simple eyes (stemmata): a, lens, behind which

is seen the optic nerve.
Fig. 5. Portion of comea, showing circular and hex-

agonal facets.
Fig. 6. Papillæ, or bulbous expansions of optic nerve

of the stemmata.

· page 38

Pl. V. ....
Fig. 1. Head of the Bee, mounted for microscopic in-

vestigation : a, antennæ or feelers; b, b, man-
dibles, or first pair of jaws ; cc, maxillæ, or
second pair of ditto; c', c', ribs of maxillæ ;
d, ligula, or tongue; d', terminal disc of

tongue; e, labial palpi.
Fig. 2. Antenna: a, the large second joint.
Fig. 3. Portions of antenna highly magnified, showing

sensory organs” and nerves (a).
Fig. 4. Portion of segment still more highly magni-

fied, showing sensory organs.
Fig. 5. Part of the wings: b, anterior wing with bar,

to which the hooks of the posterior wing
adhere.

66

46

:

PL. VI.....
Fig. 1. Hind leg of Worker-bee: a, coxa, or hip; b, tro-

chanter; c, femur; d, tibia; e, e', tarsus
e', last joint of tarsus, provided with claws;

j, junction of tibia and tarsus (pollen-basket).
Fig. 2. Pollen-basket magnified, showing the prongs, a'.
Fig. 3. Last joint of tarsus magnified, showing claws

and cup-shaped cushion, a.
Fig. 4. Fore and hind wing with hooklets, h.

[blocks in formation]

Fig. 5. Anatomy of sting: a, sheath; b, piercers ;

c, site of poison-bag.
Fig. 6. Termination of piercer (of sting) highly mag-

nified.

page 60

Pl. VII.
Fig. 1. Digestive organs of Bee: a, oesophagus, or

gullet; b, crop, or honey-bag ; c, stomach ;

d, biliary tubes; e, colon.
Fig. 2. Respiratory and nervous system (the por-

tion to the left is one half of the respiratory
system, similar organs being situated on the
right side): a, a', respiratory sacs; b,

thoracic
duct and larger tracheæ ; c, abdominal duct;
d, respiratory sacculi ;—(the white portion
beneath the respiratory organs represents
the nervous system): a, a, cephalic ganglia ;
b, infra-oesophageal ganglion; C, thoracic
ganglion ; d, e, f, g, h, abdominal ganglia ;
0, optic nerves; na, nerves of antennæ ;
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, nerves of members of loco-

motion.
Fig. 3. Stigma, or respiratory aperture.
Fig. 4. Portion of trachea, or respiratory tube.

Pl. VIII.

102
Fig. 1. Ovaries of Queen-bee in situ: a, narrow ends,

and b, wide ends of ovarian tubes.
Fig. 2. Outline of ovaries, showing (a & b, as above):

C, C, proper oviducts; e, common oviduct;
8, spermatheca; 1,1, secreting tubes of ditto;

P, poison-secreting tube.
Fig. 3. Portion of ovary: d, ova arrested in their pro-

gress, before passing through tubes, at b, into
the proper oviduct, c.

Fig. 4. Crystals of sugar and honey: a, honey crystal;

b, sugar crystal; c, sugar crystal, found par-
tially dissolved in honey. (These are taken
from Lankester's 'Half Hours with the Mi-

croscope.')
Figs. 5 & 6. Portion of brood-comb, showing ordinary

hexagonal cells, and q c, queen-cells.
Fig. 7. Larva of Bee (worker).
Fig. 8. Pupa of ditto (ditto).

ERRATA.

Page 3, line 2, after finding insert it.
9,

15, for figs. 1, e, & 3 read figs. 1, é', & 3.
30, 6 from bottom, for antennæ read antenna.
31, 11, for Pl. IV. read Pl. V.
47, last line but one, for fig. 20 read fig. 2, 0.

THE

HONEY-B E E.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

It would be paying but a poor compliment to those talented authors who have at various times sought to interest and instruct mankind through the publication of works on the natural history of the Common HiveBee, if we were to justify our selection of this insect as the subject of our second little Treatise on Humble Creatures, on the ground that we deemed it necessary for the purpose of rendering it familiar to the popular mind.

Hundreds of such works, including several of marked excellence, have been given to the world; but recent improvements in the microscope, and our daily increasing store of physiological knowledge, constantly lead to the revelation of new facts in regard to this and other insects, in addition to those already ascertained ; and every day we find old and apparently

B

well-established theories fading away and giving place to others of a totally different character; so much so, that it may with justice be said that we are still engaged in studying the introduction to this branch of natural science.

The Bee, too, is peculiarly adapted not only for the investigation of insect anatomy, but also to aid in that of the progressive mental development of the animal races.

Its structure, external as well as internal, is extremely beautiful and complicated, presenting numerous features, suited to its well-known habits of life, that are found in no other creature; and without reference to its wax- and honey-making properties, which render it especially interesting to man, we may add that its highly developed instinctive faculties, which constitute the moving spring of its various natural operations, cause it, in this respect, to hold the first rank in the invertebrate province of the Animal Kingdom ; indeed some of its acts, if performed by man instead of by one of the lower animals, would be esteemed little short of miracles.

You may perhaps be disposed, reader, to regard this last assertion as somewhat exaggerated; but if you will accompany us in the consideration of a few of the phenomena of Bee-life, you will find that it is fully borne out by well-acknowledged facts.

Suppose yourself transported on board of one of those huge American 'steamers plying up and down the Mississippi, and that, falling short of provisions, you are some fine morning set on shore by the cap

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