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J.B.Hicko do Saraelson, dett

G. H. Ford, lith

Structure of eyes, (Compound & Simple) of Bee.

John Van Voorst, London.

each of which the dark colouring matter intervenes (Pl. IV. fig. 6).

The nearest approach to these eyes is found in the Arachnidæ or Spider races, where, however, the number is greater, and the eyes themselves are somewhat more complicated; in both cases these eyes are surrounded on all sides by curiously-shaped hairs having a central stem and lateral branches.

If our space permitted, we might add other interesting details regarding these organs; but they have already received a large, though not unmerited, share of our notice, and we must now proceed to the consideration of the remaining organs situated upon the head of the Bee.

We are indeed loth to pass away from this interesting portion of the subject, and before doing so, would earnestly recommend you to direct your attention not only to the anatomy of the organs of vision in this and other insects, but also to their operation; for this is still far from being clearly understood. A careful consideration of the simple and compound eyes

and of their relative uses, besides being a source of great enjoyment, will not fail to reveal some new facts that may prove useful to science. That these wonderful organs teach us edifying lessons in philosophy and religion, we have already seen by a comparison of their structure with that of our achromatic lenses and other portions of our philosophical instruments; for in the latter we see the intelligence of man repeat, in things made, the beautiful conceptions of the Infinite in things created.

CHAPTER III.

THE ANTENNÆ OR FEELERS OF THE BEE; THEIR STRUCTURE,

AND ANECDOTES CONCERNING THEIR EMPLOYMENT. -THE

REMARKABLE MASTICATING APPARATUS; ITS SAW-LIKE JAWS, CUTTING BLADES, AND EXQUISITE LIGULA OR TONGUE; THEIR USES. --THE THORAX OR CHEST.-THE LEGS: WONDERFUL CONSTRUCTION OF THE BEE'S HIND-LEGS; THE POLLEN-BASKET AND PLIERS.-HOW THE BEE COLLECTS ITS

PROVENDER.-WING OF A BEE AND ITS COMPONENT PARTS.

--CURIOUS CONTRIVANCE FOR LOCKING THE WINGS TO

GETHER.—USES OF THE WINGS.—THE STING; ITS BARBS

AND POISON-BAG.-SUMMARY.

Having carefully examined the complicated anatomy of the eyes of the Bee, the next organs upon its head that we shall have to consider are its antennæ or feelers (Pl. V. fig. 1, a, & fig. 2). These appendages are thread-like or filiform, as they are scientifically denominated; and if you examine them with a lens, , you will find that they are composed of thirteen cylindrical joints of nearly equal diameter, the second from the head being, however, much longer than the rest, and comprising above one-third of the whole antennæ (Pl. V. fig. 2, a). With the exception of

. this one, all the annulated segments of the antennæ are studded over with perforations similar to those upon the third joint of the Housefly. These perforations will be more readily detected through the employment of a low magnifying power (fig. 3), or,

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still better, if one of the antennæ be bleached with chlorine, and a portion of it be then submitted to microscopic investigation. Then you will be able not only to distinguish the peculiar structure of the organs with which it is covered, and to perceive that they are closed sacculi (little sacs), but you may also trace the central nerve that runs along the whole length of the feeler, giving off innumerable branches, one of which communicates with each of the cavities on the surface (Pl. IV. fig. 3, a, & fig. 4). This connexion of the vesicles or sacculi with the nervous system in the manner just described, denotes clearly that they are organs

of Thus much has been determined with tolerable certainty ; but now comes the problem-what is the character of the sensory function performed by these antennæ ? is it that of hearing, smell, or touch?

That they are organs of touch is decided beyond a doubt: but whether there is combined with this sense that of hearing or smell, or whether the vesicles are organs that convey external impressions to the nervous centres in a manner inappreciable by us, is still an open question; for however carefully they have been examined and compared with the sensory organs in other races of animals, no physiologist has yet been able to pronounce definitely as to their true function*.

6

* The opinions of various naturalists in this respect will be found in the Earthworm and Housefly,' p. 37, and note; and in various contributions by Dr. Hicks to the Transactions of the Linnean Society.

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