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The Political Economist. ous, and the issues of paper by all bankers in the texture and engraving of Bank-notes. THE RICARDO LECTURES-(CONTINUED.) were much increased. 'li was quite evident, This was proved by the almost total dis

. that when more paper was issued than was appearance of forgeries in Ireland since 1814, PAPER CURRENCY.

required by the increased quantity of other when Mr. Oldham's improved notes were Mr. M'Culloch began by giving a short commodities in the market, the value of such adopted. The same inference was afforded and clear repetition of his last lecture on paper would be diminished. This might be by the United States. By improving the money. He had stated the circumstances conceived to proceed so far that a ten pound manufacture of Bank of England notes to as which had led to the use of money as a me note would be the price of a quartern loaf. great an extent as was possible, he contend. dium of exchange, and to the universal adop. To prevent this evil it was necessary to check eå that forgeries could be prevented, as efection of the precious metals, gold and silver, excessive issues of paper, by making it con- tually as the counterfeiting of gold and silver for that purpose. He had also explained the vertible into the comparatively invariable coin. laws which affected the exchangeable value metals.

The practical application of his obserra, of money, according as it was brought to

If the issues of paper could be sufficiently tions on money, all who were conversant with market by free competition, or subject to a limited, it would be the best possible medium the subject knew sufficiently well how to monopoly. In the former case he had shown of exchange. But no-individuals were ever make; and he would not, therefore

, drell that the exchangeable value depended, like trusted with this power who did not abuse it. longer on the subject. He would next prothe value of all other commodities, upon the To act otherwise would be to attend to the ceed to treat of commerce, or the territorial cost of production ; in the latter case, when public interest, and to neglect their own. To division of labour. The advantages of the the issuing of money was monopolized, its prevent this abuse was the object of resum- home trade were too obvious to require illus- : exchangeable value depended upon the pro-ing cash payments. But the necessity of re- tration. In the next lecture he would, there portion of the supply to the demand.

verting to cash payments by no means impli- fore, proceed at once to the subject of foreiga This latter view of the causes which regu, ed the adoption of payment in coin.

commerce: lated the value of the circulating medium had not till lately been ascertained. It was, how

MR. RICARDO'S BULLION PAYMENTS. ever, of the greatest importance, and led to The necessity of issuing a sum of probably

The Bouquet. results of the highest value. According to twenty millions of gold coin in "payment of "I have here only made a nosegay of culled Rivero, od lewe this doctrine the issues of Bank of England Bank of England paper, really occasioned a

brought nothing of my own but the thread that tie them." notes were beneficial or mischievous, not as, loss of the profits on that amount of capital. they were or were not convertible into gold It was not an answer this objection that the

REVIVIANA. or silver, but as they exceeded or equalled Bank sustained this loss for the profits of the MICRO.COSMOGRAPHIE ; or, a piece of the the proper supply, If the supply of Bank Bank, when not made at the expense of the WORLD DISCOVERED; in ESSAYES, and notes were exactly adapted to the demand, it rest of the public, were clearly a part of the CHARACTERS. By DR. JNO. Eames. The was no matter whether it was at all, conver- national wealth. By the unprofitable issue

Eighth Edition. London: printed by R. D. for

P.C. 1664. tible into gold, or whether gold or silver ex of from twenty to thirty millions of gold coin

COOXCLUDBDTROM OUR LABT.) isted at all as a standard. When the Bank by the Banks of England and Ireland, there Restriction took place, in 1794, the dividends. was a loss of profits to the nation of $1,200,000 78. A Suspitrous, or IEALOUS MAS is at the Bank and the taxes being payable in or 141,500,000. Tở this came to be added one that watches himself a mischief, aud Banks notes, Bank paper really became the 615,000, annually expended at the Mint, be- keeps a lear eye still

, for fear it should es, circulating medium;

and while the Bank made sides the wear and tear of the coin actually in cape him. A man that sees a great no excessive issues there was no depreciation. circulation. To remedy these disadvantages, more in every thing then is to be seen, and For three years no change took place, to the and withdraw the precious metals cntirely yet he thinks he sees nothing: His own eye surprise both of the advocates and the oppa- from circulation, Mr. Ricardo had devised stands in his light. He is a fellow commonly nents of the measure,

a plan as simple and practicable as it was guilty of some weaknesses, which he might It had been contended that there could be effectual and convenient. It was to oblige conceale if he were carelesse: Now'bis overno excessive issues by bankers who discount- the Bank to buy gold bullion of assayed diligence to hide them, makes men pry the ed only on good securities, convertible into weight and fineness at €3 175 6d. and to give more. Howsoever he imagines you have cash at short dates. As this argument in- it in exchange for their notes at £3 17s 104d. found him, and it shall goe hard but you must volved the question so much agitated from per Ounce. To prevent unnecessary and abuse him whether you will or no. Not a 1800 to 1819, during which period the de- vexatious trouble by retail dealers, who were word can be spoke, but nips him somewhere: preciation of the paper currency existed, he the most apt to create a run upon the Bank, not a jest thrown out, but he will make it bit would fully examine its force and bearing. he had proposed to make the least bars of bulu him. You shall have him

goe fretting out of Mr. M'Culloch here entered into a very lion weigh 20 ounces.

company, with some twenty quarrels to every elaborate and most perspicuous disquistion, Mr. M'Culloch here gave a history of the man, stung and galld, and no man knows less to prove that the discounts of bankers de well known course by which cash payments the occasion then they that have given it

. To pended not upon the sufficiency and conver- were resumed, and Mr. Ricardo's plan in part laugh before him is a dangerous matter

, for tibility of the securities, but upon the rate of adopted. He regretted that it was departed it cannot be at any thing but at him, and interest taken at the Bank, and the rate of from by the Bank withdrawing all their £1 to whisper in his company plain conspiracy

, profit in the market. This he followed up and £ž. notes, and substituting gold coin. Ne bids you speak out, and he will ansatte with a quotation from Mr. Ricardo's work, There was great advantages in Mr. Ricardo's you, when you thought not of him. He ex which stated that when the rate of discount plan, as preventing a panic from causing a postulates with you in passion, wby, you was 5 per cent. and the rate

of profit in the run, as a panic was generally confined to the should abuse him, and explains to yourigao market was 8 or 10 per cent. the Discount- retail dealers and poorer classes, and they rance

wherein, and gives you very good point office was besieged with applicants : but when could not go to the Bank for such large sums, son, at last, to laugh at him hereafter. He the rate of prokt was reduced below the rate without taking time to effect concerted aris une still accusing others when

they are not of interest, the clerks in the Discount-office rangements.

guilty, and defending himself when he is not had nothing to do. From 1808 to 1815, when The facility and frequency of forgeries were accused : and no man is undone more with the depreciation was greatest, the rate of profit probably the reasons for recurring to a me- Apologies, wherein he is so elaborately. e was very high, and consequently the applica- tallic currency. But forgeries were to be cessive, that none will believe him, and be tions

for money upon discount were numere rather imputed to the want of improvement I never thought worse of then when he bath



It will be com

en satisfaction: Such men can never have


“trained in the way they should go,” the work of farther ends, because they cannot trust so farre :

instruction goes on without the numerous drawbacks

UNIVERSAL . this bumour hath this infection with it, The most popular and usefuli of all the London cheap publi- which now throw so many difficulties in the preceptor's nakes all men to them suspitious : In con- This day are published, Part T. to XII (each Part, price 18.


I have been induced to make the foregoing remarks in sion, they are men alwayes in offence

from original Designs, by W. H. Brooke, Esq. executed by the hope of drawing the attention of the patrons of educavexation with themselves and their neighars, wronging others in thinking they H

TUME and SMOLLETT'S HISTORY of ENG. tion to this new branch of charity; and, in Liverpool,

LAND, WITHOUT ANY ABRIDGMENT WHATEVER, and where we have a superabundance of schools, would it not uld wrong them, and themselves most of continued to the Coronation of his Majesty King George the be well to turn some of them into this direction ? in thinking they deserve it. Vols. I. and II. in extra boards, price 6s. 6d. each, com.

A FRIEND TO EDUCATION. prising the first Twelve Parts, with Forty-eight original En

gravings, by W. H. BROOKE, Esq. are just published. Miscellanies.

The object of the Proprietors of this work is to present to
the Public, in the first instance, a HISTORY OF ENGLAND-in

Design novel-in execution unsurpassed--and in Price un-

The History of England will be a Work in every respect

TO THE EDITOR. a following speech, addressed by a Greek General to complete in itself, and totally unconnected with other His

SIR, Being in some degree interested in education, Idiers, on the occasion of Lord Byron's death, has pleted in about 28 Parts, in a Year, and will be embellished I went to Mr. Hamilton's lecture on Monday evening, sent here from Missolonghi:

with about One Hundred and Twenty original Engravings, and was, as most of the company were likewise, highly

by the above-mentioned Artists, frase Helenists painful duty calls me before you To Parents, Guardians, Tutors, and all Persons desirous of gratified. Mr. Hamilton's system is now before the pubto I come, to strew with flowers, the tomb of a man acquiring or imparting Historical Knowledge, this Edition of has sacrificed his fortune and his life in our sacred the History of England is, with the utmost deference, offered: lic, and will, doubtless, receive that attention it deserves.

His great soul, thirsting after glory, was wichheld In order to impress all the important Historical Facts on the It is utterly opposed to the reigning manner of teaching, obstacles. Notwithstanding that nature brought Sections of Interrogatories are introduced at regular intervals, and therefore is likely to meet with much opposition. Of orth on the humid banks of the Thames, he tra- with reference to the page, column, and paragraph where its superiority over all the plans I know, and I am ac1 the seas to come and brave, in our climates, the the solutions will be found ing fires of the sun. Gifted with a soul full of ge- Modern, are preparing for the Press, on the same Plan.

The most celebrated and authentie Histories, Antient and quainted with those of Perry, Lancaster, and Bell, I will sty and ardent love for liberty, he hesitated not a

give you a striking fact. Being myself in a slight degree Fent after he heard that the descendants of Leonidas menced. Sold by T. SMITH, 13, Paradise-street, Liverpool, of skilled in French, I thought it unfair to draw any conclu. Themistocles, shaking off the chains which had whom a Prospectus may be obtained, gratis.

sions from my own personal experience, and I called in- sed them down during three centuries, had made a

mediately after the lecture on a friend, who knew nothing effort to reconquer liberty, and wrest their unfortu.

Correspondence. ountry from the ferocious Mussulmans. Like an

of the language in question, and commenced the lesson Tyrtæus, he conceived the bold project of leading us

in the way prescribed by Mr. Hamilton. In a few minutes

INFANT SCHOOLS. _ory by the sound of his melodious lyre ; but, alas!

I perfectly succeeded in teaching the portion of St. John's has snatched him from us at the moment when he


Gospel treated' of in the lecture, and had the pleasure of wout to add to his poetical ctown the flower of ho

hearing my pupil read and construe the French as readily SIR,- The subject of education has of late years exwhich is gathered on the field of battle Weep, : Helenists, over the ashes of this great man, whose perienced the attention of all classes as one of growing as I could myself. 1 was the whole universe. "If this land, which he importance, and its general diffusion will mark the present

The system of Mr. Hamilton is applicable to the ma. red and rendered illustrious by his residence, be not era in a very distinguished way. The first statesmen in thematics, geography, and all other oral instruction, as ted to keep his mortal remains, at least we shall the country think it not beneath their talents to investi. well as to the languages; and I must add, it interferes atch over us in the midst of the combat, and sustain gate the affairs of the parish-schools, and every day seems materially with that of Dr. Bell, and contradicts some of he arduous struggle in which we are engaged. Like to light on a science which is still in its in- his favourite positions ; but wherever it does so, it manis beacon-light which guides the mariner bewildered fancy. I was much gratified on seeing the account of the festly has the advantage. npests, the torch of his genius will point out our meeting lately held in London, at which the Marquis of

Dr. Bell sets out with one grand principle-mutual hrough the storms of revolution. Brave Helenists, Lansdown presided, in order to bring into more general tuition, or instruction by means of the scholars themselves. fle every private resentment, and only think of notice the subject of schools for infants, or those children This is what he lays claim to as his invention; and so far teat work we have undertaken. Let us prove to who are too young for admission into our common charity- it is generally conceded to hini; the benevolent Dr.

ve that our courage has been strengthened by adver- schools. I know not what degree of attention has been Briggs, of this town, when mayor of Kendal, having inend that we are still worthy of the rank held by our paid in Liverpool to institutions of the nature I am ad-troduced this peculiarily into the Blue School of that

If we should fail in this noble attempt, wbat vocating, but I am certain that a little reflection will at place, some time before Mr. Lancaster did the same thing f the universe are now fixed. If vanquished, how once show their desirableness. I had lately an opportunity in his school at London. Whatever there is more in Dr. xe bear to live in a land so full of the great deeds of of viewing one of the earliest of these interesting establish Bell's system, and there is much and excellent, Mr. H. ar. icestors? The first step has been taken ; it is now ments at Bristol, and of conversing with its intelligent ranges under the head of general laws; and whether these

e retract. See the heroes of Thermopylæ rising superintendent, Mr. Goyder, who has published a work be more or less different to those the Doctor approves, .: wody

from their tombs and crying to you. What on the subject of infant day-schools. Every thing I saw still there is no new invention, but merely a variety of did not we, during three days, check the progress convinced me of the truth of Mr. Brougham's remarks at application. innumerable host of Xerxes? We fell over the meeting I have alluded to. The fact is, that the

So far Mr. Hamilton does not come in contact. ed by numbers, but at least we sold our lives dearly, education of the poor is seldom commenced early enough But Dr. Bell lays down as a law, and places no slight hereby saved Greece from the yoke of the stranger. to counteract the impressions made between the ages of stress upon it, that it is not what is done for a Halenists, this is not a time to be lost in useless two and six, when it is now proposed to receive them. boy, but what he does for himself, that is of any benefit

You know as well as I do the situation of hour Few of us can fail to recollect the effects of impressions to him." This Mr. Hamilton controverts in toto, and s swear upon the tombs of Lord Byron, of Bozzaris, at this early period of life, during which time it is that, says every thing ought to be repeatedly told the pupil, till

f all the brave men that have perished in our cause, among the lower classes, children are seldom taken care he is perfectly master of the subject in hand. Here Mr. -70 will never lay down our arms until our native soil of as they ought to be ; for, with the best intentions, the Hamilton is decidedly right; and if some of our best schoMussulman Lords to the deserts which vomited them parents, from a variety of causes, are commonly unable lars were to teach in this way, their pupils at the Univer

and let Greece, raised from her ruins by the hands to do it; and hence habits are formed and confirmed sity must, in the nature of things, stand far before others e children, serve as an example to those people who which no subsequent treatment can overpower.

The taught in the usual way; for this reason,--because the ll, owing to a disgraceful indolence, kept under the visitors of our common schools can attest this from every knowledge is much sooner communicated, and I think soned daggers of tyranny."

day experience. The eagerness with which mothers press equally well retained. etty and Ilanisome. -A pretty woman gains, at first forward to obtain admission for their children into the Mr. Hamilton's method, it will be perceived, throws

your tender affections, as a handsome woman, by Bristol Infant School is a convincing proof of the esti- the onus from the pupil on the tutor; therefore teachers es, commands your respect; for she often carries, mation in which it is held, whilst the happiness, comfort, will probably oppose it. But parents ought to look to the egularity of features, a sternness in them very incom. and security of the children is the theme of admiration benefit of their children, and not to the comfort or ease of e with the rapid attractions of sweetness and affability

. among all visitors. Here every thing of a vicious ten- their schoolmaster. If Mr. H.'s system is grafted into sap and authentic History of England. We can dency is far removed from them, and the first dawnings Dr. Bell's, which it very easily may, it will be a great onfidence reconmend to the attention of our readers of reason are watched and made available for the most improvement, and much more work may be accomplished, is publication of Hume and Smollett's History of ind. It is well printed, of a handsome size, and by valuable purposes. When at an age for removal to other and much better, than is the case. Mr. H. will, i think, e cheapest national work we have ever met with.-- and more advanced schools, the children are found per- perform all he engages in his advertisements, if he does, loa

fectly prepared for a severe discipline; and, having been not go beyond it.

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That these observations may have their due weight, frious communications for your fifth volume, and that they | Majesty, and we understand proceeds to London inmedi. I wish it to be understood that I know nothing more of will be forwarded in due course.

ately after the concert. Our limits will not allow us to say Mr. Hamilton than what I saw at the lecture. I never spoke In the meantime, we wish you health, wealth, and as much as we could wish, on a subject so truly interest to him, and it is not likely I ever shall. He seems a man prosperity in all your lawful undertakings, and remain, her short stay in Dublin she has been visited by up artis

We understand, that during of great modesty, and of uncommon urbanity and gentle most sincerely, yours,

of 20,000 persons, amongst whom were some of the price ness, or he would not so quietly, and yet so completely HOMO, STUDIOSUS, SPERANS, and Co. cipal of nobility. This prodigy of science is only three have reproved that pert gentleman who pretended to know Liverpool, June 22, 1824.

years and seven months old ; her powers of execution on so much of French pronunciation. As this person is by

the harp are said to exceed belief; and in her pa.

formance she evinces proofs of extraordinary memory, no means incognitus, I will only remind him that he came into the room free of expense; and that in the beginning


which seem almost supernatural. Some of Gur readers

may doubt our statememt when we say that this infant, of the lecture, Mr. H. disclaimed every thing like supe


who weighs only twenty-nine

pounds, performs with ru riority of information. It was the manner, not the matter S18,—The difference in opinion between your torre been speaking to a gentleman fully competent to in :

terly execution, long and difficult concertos; but we have which he took in hand. However, as it happened, Mr. spondent, Leigh Waldegrave, and myself is so very in- judgment on the subject, and we have no hesitata in Hamilton was unquestionably. right.--Yours, &c.

considerable, that I should scarcely have deemed a reply reporting thus favourably of this singularly-talented in. PRECEPTOR.

needful, if the main purport of his letter had not been fant. Liverpool, June 24, 1824. to implicate you for giving publicity to my sentiments on

The day for the concert will be announced in the Lier. We think

Preceptor is somewhat too severe in the term the character and tendency of the writings of the late pool Courier. fectly, and although we thought the interruption somewhat Lord Byron. I am, therefore, called upon to say, that, uncivil at the time, we should not have so deemed it had not so far from your opinion being in accordance with my To Correspondents, time wrong in point of fact. We must, however, observe, own, I believe it was your intention to have devoted a persist in it, that when the preposition avec is followed by a in admitting my humble communication, you merely did that se e know frenchemene bo fas Into the samelerron, and corner of your paper in honour of his memory; and that, L'HERMITE EN ITALIR.-The plensing work of M. Joes, ar

original translation of which has appeared in the I consonant the final c is not sounded ; but the word pro

scope before it has been published in London, consists of nounced as if it were aves. The person who maintained so out of the fairness of your editorial capacity; for which, two volumes. The first volume has been completed, and this in Mr. Hamilton's room, no doubt thought he was right, and that he was not violating the rules c: decorum, by de Sir, allow me to return you my best acknowledgments, the second will commence next week with the first pe livering his opinion; and we repeat, that had he been cor: particularly as I now find there are those in the world

ber of our fifth volume. When it is completed, our readers

will have an original translation of a work of one or te ceremony on the occasion, because a person, who conies be- that would not act so impartially as you have done, through

most popular writers of the age, the French copy of stich fore the public with such high pretensions as Mr. Hamilton, motives, as I should consider, of false delicacy. The cost more than two-thirds of the price of the wbole ralense must expect to have those pretensions questioned ; and must be prepared to put down cavillers by argument. In this case term is certainly harsh ; but can it be otherwise than false of the Kaleidoscopa We merely mention this as one pool, he did so, and we were very much pleased at his conduct delicacy, when a man tells me, that, while living, he

that, in the conduct of our own work, we do not lose sight upon the occasion to which we allude.

of our motto,“ Utile dulct.” some of our readers,

who may not be aware of the point at execrated-mark! Mr. Editor, execrated the Noble Lord issue, and as it relates to a query in pronunciation, we shall for his writings ; and now, because he is no more, nothing The HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM.-We have received a long letter briefly state it. Mr. Hamilton's pupils were repeating, at his dictation, a chapter from the New Testament. When is to be said or heard of him but what is replete with

on this subject from Sedulitas, to whom we would saceast they came to the words avec Dieu, they pronounce the final high-sounding praise ? This is precisely what I am most

more sedulous attention to the construction of his sentences (avek Dieu.)

As an excuse for the obscure parts for which he appear correct; as the anal before a consonant ought not to be desirous should be condemned; for it ought to be remem

himself aware) he pleads haste: but we cannot sdrit the Mr. Hamilton very cooly observed that the gentleman who bered, that, although the man is dead, his works are yet plea. If a man is 80 pressed for time as not to be able to do had interrupted him was decidedly in the wrong. The prepo alive, and the result of them equally injurious to morality. a thing properly, he had much better Bot attempt it at al:

but we cannot conceive how a person who has received a final, had arst been omitted, When It became avecque; after Nay, indeed, I may venture to go further, and say, they

liberal education, and professes to write upon camerana which the que was dropped, and the word was written avec" are likely to be much more so than they ever were,

languages, could pen such a sentence as the following but the final c was stiul sounded as before. This explanation because of the many virtues that have been ascribed

however pressed he might be for time. For our own parts, been any doubt upon the subject, as Chambaud's

Dictionary manner in which his faults have mostly been touched is very satisfactory; but we wonder that there could have to him by several of our journalists, and the very tender It appears to us that the sentence is so very eireaitos

and obscure, that it could not have been written of band. decides the matter. Avec being there written avck. is a word of perpetual recurrence, we have thought proper to upon :-tenderness that is altogether incompatible with,

but maust bave been studied for the purpose of puzzling a. enter thus at large upon a point which ought to be well.un. the public weal, and against which I have already entered

The following ts a literal transeript:-" I went to Mr. Es

lecture) with a mind prejudiced by the dictates of connan my protest, although Leigh Waldegrave would fain it sense, and came away with the same prejudices doubiy is

had not been sa As for the other remarks of your cor- tensech" We have met with many strange literary specs TO THE EDITOR. respondent, they are of minor importance, and a word,

mens in our time, but few surpassing this: and, we mros

also observe, that we cannot concelve that a writer, whose SIR, Perceiving in your notices to correspondents that in conclusion, may suffice. That we are not Egyptians,

mind is prejudiced, and whose prejudices, by his own confes you have received a communication from a Mr. Sperans, I can also thank God; but then, if, in the particular to sion, are doubly intensed, is a very fit person to enter apob a we must beg leave to remark that this gentleman does which in my former letter I referred, the Egyptian code dispassionate consideration of any system of education not belong to our firm. We do not mean this as the had been acted upon by Englishmen, I think, truly, the The LiveR BIRDA very beautiful stuffed bird has been slightest disparagement to the said person, but merely reputation of Voltaire, and many others of like feeling,

brought to our office, where it will be permitted to lo for the sake of suum cuique ; since it is certainly not he would have been in the shade long ago, and, in my judg- main for Inspection the whole of this day. The ind who has sent you the translations from Laun, or the vin- ment, very justly so too.-Yours, &c.

vidual to whom it belongs, calls it the Liver Bird, from dication of Kotzebue.



which some antiquarians derive the name of our attire

town. We know nothing of ornithology ourselves; and te The circumstance has induced Your Reader to propose,

have been taught to regard our corporation bird as the eres that, in order to avoid confusion for the future, your


ture of fiction, like the renowned Phænix. The species old friend, L. Man, shall henceforth be exclusively

which we now invite our readers to examine, may be as...

TO THE EDITOR. charged with our articles, and that he shall transmit them

llar to naturalists; but we must be permitted to observe, to you in his own name. We are, indeed, not quite so SIR,- One of your late Kaleidoscopes contained a query

that if there be such a bird as the Liver, this must be ene si

the species, as the resemblance it bears to our best represes convinced of his abilities as your politeness has sometimes (love and honour) to which I have in vain looked for an

tation of that bird is most remarkable. It is about two urged you to assure of yourself, and we find still much answer. For want of a better, I beg leave to offer you

feet high, and of a most elegant and symmetrical fa to desire in him; yet, when we consider his long services, my opinion upon the subject. When a man, after he is As this specimen has excited much curiosity, we hope some and the strong attachment which he has always shown for engaged to one woman, is so unfortunate as to fall in person, versed in this branch of natural history, will take

the trouble to call and look at it, whilst the opportunity every one amongst us, we must declare, in the full sin love with another, he ought to do his utmost to conquer

presents itsele. eerity of our hearts, that we often deeply regret our this second affection. If he cannot do this, he ought to inability of making him quite so comfortably situated as acquaint the lady with the unfortunate circumstance; but FILTERING MACHINE. Next week we shall introduce the ds

Rription of the filtering machine, noticed by Dr. Traill we could wish. Our regret is even strengthened by the still adhere to his engagement.I give my opinion

his lectures It will be illustrated by an engraving. exemplary delicacy with which he refrains from making with great diffidence, and shall be always open to conus any reproaches. We cannot deny that he might, on viction, if a better should be offered.-Yours, respectfully, Several communications are unavoidably postponed to on

Bury, June 21, 1824.

P. some occasions, have accused us of a palpable neglect of

next, amongst which is the Haunted Chamber, which shall

most assuredly have a place in the first pumber of our his interest; but such is his good will towards us that he

5th volume;-P. of Bury –Philomand X. Y. 2. are also te

MUSICAL PRODIGY. always finds means to ascribe such occurrences to un.

served for our next. toward circumstances over which we had no control. We congratulate the lovers of genius on the arrival in

Letters or parcels not received, unless free of cherge. Not wishing, however, to annoy you with our private our town of the Infant Lyra: we learn that this pheno

menon stays expressly for Don Celestino Bruguera's Conattairs, we conclude with informing you that we have cert. This singularly-gifted little girl cannot fail to at- Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, by B commissioned our abovementioned agent to prepare va. tract notice. She is on her way for presentation to his SMITH and Co 75, Lord-street, Liverpool.

derstood. Edt. Kal.


From the Liverpool Mercury of October 31, 1823.) only of the master or overseer, but of the meanest driver. of voluntary labour on the fertile soils of Africa and of

That they are compelled to work on the Sabbath for their India. But how widely different has been our conduct ! We trust the whole of the circumstances connected with own subsistence, which is, in fact, for their master's profit. What but absolute infatuation could have induced the

That the advantages of religious instruction, and of the Europeans to destroy the native inhabitants of the West the late occurrences in Demerara will undergo the fullest marriage tie, are almost universally withheld from them. Indies, in order to re.people those islands, at an enormous investigation ; many of the statements appear, as we have That the most unrestrained licentiousness prevails expense, from the coast of Africa! And what but absolute already observed, to be grossly exaggerated, evidently amongst them, and is exhibited in a degrading, disgusting, infatuation can it have been, which in this country has with the intention of preventing the discussion of this sub- and depopulating promiscuous intercourse, encouraged by actually led us to reject sugar, if produced by the labour of ject; but surely the monstrous proposition can never be the debaucheries of the whites.—That they can hold no the African on his native soil; and at the same time to give

property ; their evidence is not received, and hence laws a bounty on the produce of his labour, when converted into entertained, that an evil exists in the British dominions of for their protection are but a mockery.—The reader will a slave, and forced to cultivate the now.exhausted soils of so dreadful a character that neither its circumstances nor be ready to exclaim, “ Surely there must be some great our West India islands! Such is truly the state of things; mode of remedy are to be subjects of discussion ! There and palpable gain arising from this system, to induce its and how lamentable is it that after condemning and abo

is, however, one feature in the case, which we cannot pass maintenance for a single hour!” But what will be his lishing the African slave trade, we should still be support. - over: it does not appear that any white person has suf astonishment to find, that instead of gain, it is attended ing, with enormous pecuniary sacrifices, the remnant of fered ; we must therefore be allowed to doubt, whether, if with great and enormous loss; that such is its inherent our wickedness and folly!

impolicy, that if it had not been supported and protected Let us look at the map of the world. We know that the whites had shown the same degree of feeling, and by bounties and prohibitions, it would long since have been sugar can be produced at least thirty degrees on each side evinced the same degree of civilization, in their warfare, ameliorated and finally have fallen.

of the Equator; we know also, that an acre of good land, as the poor blacks, there would have been so much sacri- The protecting bounties and prohibitions mostly apply in those climates, will produce as many pounds of sugar fice of life. The forbearance of the negroes ought at least to sugar, which is the chief production of our West India as our land does of wheat; and that, if it were not for to have entitled them to more merciful treatment. Colonies. They are:

duties and bounties, sugar might be supplied in great plenty The planters seem violently opposed to the interference

I-A bounty which is paid on the exportation of refined at a very cheap rate. Who then can sufficiently condemn a of the mother country in their concerns: we shall therefore sugar, and which raises the price of all sugar in the home policy, which holds in chains of bondage 700,000 of our market about 6s. per cwt. above its natural price.

fellow-beings; and for the very sake of maintaining this call the attention of the country to the management of its

II.-A high duty of 108. per cwt. above what is paid from oppressive and wicked system, confines us to a few little own; to an examination of how far we participate in the the West Indies, imposed on sugar, the produce of the British colonies for our supply of one of the most valuable and crimes of the system, by the support we give to it, by dominions in India.

important of all foreign productions! Who can sufficiently bounties to keep up the price of slave produce, and by

condemn a policy, which, for the sake of furnishing to

III.—Prohibitory duties on sugar grown in all other parts these poor miserable beings the few things with which armies to keep the slaves in subjection :--these are clearly of the world.

their masters may choose to supply them, restricts and saour own concerns;—these we may be allowed to investigate! Thus we see that the cruel system pursued in the British crifices an unforced and beneficial commerce, with tens, And surely we shall not be told that the slaves will rise in West Indies requires to be supported by a bounty paid by nay hundreds of millions in Asia, Africa, and America, rebellion if we attempt to interfere with the bounties on the people of England, and to be protected, not only from whose unrestrained choice would range through the almost the exportation of sugar!

the competition of the produce of free labour, but also indefinitely varied field of our manufacturing inventions ! from that of milder systems of slave labour. But though The impolicy of bounties to raise the price of the produce

such injustice and cruelty may flourish for a time, yet the of slave labour, and their injurious effects on the condition In the cruelty and injustice negro slavery, in the present state of slavery is a clear illustration of the position, of the slave population, might be clearly illustrated by a misery it occasions, and the devastation which it spreads that an all-wise Creator has made it the interest of every comparison of the state of the British West India tolonies, over the face of the earth, all the thinking part of mankind man to do right; that whatever is contrary to justice and with those of Spain and Portugal, and with the United are agreed; how, indeed, is it possible there can be two humanity, must be equally contrary to sound policy ; that States. These bounties have enabled the British planters opinions on the subject, when, to say nothing of the slave interest and duty are indissolubly bound together. to be absent from, and to neglect their own concerns, and trade, it has long been a matter of public notoriety, that Had commerce been carried on with enlarged and en- to delegate to others the tremendous responsibilities of the slaves in the West Indies are degradingly driven like lightened views of self-interest, and especially if united their situation; this characteristic of the British system is cattle by the whip at their labour, which, for nearly half with motives of benevolence and humanity, how would the fruitful source from which most of its peculiar evils the year, lasts for one half the night, as well as the whole knowledge and civilization have marked the steps of Eu. arise. The colonies of Spain and Portugal have been day.*-_That they are held and dealt with as property, and ropeans, and have been extended from the coasts to the compelled to support themselves ; they have neither had often branded as such with a hot iron. That they are interior of Africa! Instead of which, we have spread bounties on their produce, nor the expenses of a standing liable to be sold at the will of their master, or for payment barbarism and desolation on her coasts, and thereby formed army, paid by the mother country. Their system of treatof his debts, and the nearest ties in life are thus sent a formidable barrier to our intercourse with the more ment is more mild; they encourage emancipation, and asunder.—That they are liable, whether male or female, civilized interior! Had these views and these motives have vast numbers of free labourers"; and these are the to be exposed and degradingly punished at the caprice, not characterized our intercourse with India, how would darkness, ignorance, and idolatry have been disappearing

* Free men are variously employed: they often cultivate • It remains yet to be seen whether the colonists will ame- amongst her vast population! Then might we, at this the land for their own use and profit; but under the present Borate the treatment of the slaves, in accordance with the day, have been exchanging the produce of a vastly-ex- very averse to hire themselves to perform held labour, that

constitution of things, in the European colonies, they are rewolutions of the House of Commons.

tended manufacturing industry, for the cheap productions' being the employment of slaves driven by the whip.

countries which are underselling the British sugar planters, come; but even if his income remains the same, it will energies and prevent the prosperity of Ireland ; and this in all the markets of Europe.

have the stability of landed income, instead of the unjust the same remedy, namely, the removal of those restrictii, With prices of produce, sometimes so low as not to pay and uncertain tenure of property in the persons and lives will tend to relieve them both. What is chiefly required, for the importation of slaves, the slave population of the of his fellow men. Wherever slavery exists, land is of order to produce this happy result, is, that the people of United States has augmented by natural increase, after little value. We seldom hear a planter speak of the num- England should cease to make the sacrifices, which they are allowing for importation, about one hundred and twenty- ber of his acres, but of the number of his slaves. In the now compelled to make, in the shape of bounties and pas five per cent in thirty years; whilst, with prices compara- United States, land of a worse quality, and more unfavour- tecting and prohibiting duties, and which are the grzed tively high, and with the large importation into Jamaica, ably situated, if cultivated by free men, is worth more than means of perpetuating both the evils in question ; but during the same period, of 188,785 slaves, the slave po- double the price of better land, in a better situation, in the the slavery of our colonies, and the misery and degradatiza pulation of that island has only increased from 250,000 to same district, when that land is cultivated by slaves. The of a great part of Ireland. 345,252, showing, when compared with the United States, continuance, therefore, of sueh a system of oppression, of The unrestricted conimerce of the world, and the cona destruction or waste of human life, or a counteraction of wickedness, of impolicy, and of folly, is almost incredible petition of free labour, would necessarily introduce in. its tendency to increase, of 400,000 in the short period of in this enlightened age ; especially as it would unquestion proved systems into our West India colonies; would gta thirty years. And this is the country, which, thirty years ably fall by its own weight, if it were left to itself. But dually ameliorate the treatment of the slaves, and final; ago, only produced one-tenth part of the 'cotton which we have not left it to itself; we are now paying in bounty extinguish slavery itself; these colonies, enjoying their was then produced in the island of Jamaica, but which to keep up the prices of sugar, and in establishments and natural advantages, would not then need to fear the wirnow produces nearly one-thousand times the quantity it armies, to keep the slaves in subjection, about two millions petition of any other part of the world. then did; whilst its culture in Jamaica has been nearly annually! And all this, we are distinctly told by the plant- The unrestricted commerce of the world would give em. abandoned !

ers, is not sufficient. Three millions more, according to ployment to Ireland ; her population would then exchange That a system which destroys the lives or prevents the their estimates, must be given them to afford even a mo- idleness and rags for industry and comfort ; her is existence, of 400,000 human beings in one island in thirty derate remuneration, which altogether would make an streams, now wasting their powers, would give motion to years, is desperately wicked, whether it yields profit or loss, expense to the country of seven pounds annually, for every numerous manufactories; her grain and provisions, cor there can be no question ; but if these lives may be reckoned slave held in bondage.

compelled to seek a market in other countries, Feold then worth £50 each (and nearly half of them have actually been

Great as this pecuniary sacrifice is, it is not all that we find ample demand amongst her own improved population. replaced by purchase) the pecuniary sacrifice to the country are called upon to make; we are called upon to support a will be no less than £20,000,000 in this one island, and as system, the effects of which have ever been to hinder the pro- been expected, that in sacrificing such immense


We have already observed, that it might at least have that contains not one-half of the slave population of the gress of improvement, and to spread barbarism in its stead ; advantages, we should have had some manifest and pal. West India colonies, the whole sacrifice will amount to up- a system, every where marked by the destruction of the very wards of £40,000,000, which, at six per cent. interest, would soil, and still more by its tendency to the destruction of pable compensation in the enormous wealth and upmake £2,400,000 per annum, or 155. per cwt. on 160,000 every virtuous and moral feeling, no less in the master than is made. Is then the present system of colonial cultivation

ralleled prosperity of those for whose benefit the sacrifice tons of sugar, being the annual consumption of Great Bric / in the slave. We are called upon to bind down the energies advantageous to the planters? If it be, of what do they tain and Ireland ! No wonder that the West Indians of the country, and to exclude that competition which should feel the enormous expense of this cruel system press would certainly destroy this wretched system. The rapid coinplain? Have they not the unrestrained use and fiul so heavily upon them! No wonder that the share the extension of our commerce, since its opening with South control of their slaves ? Have they not the privilege of country has borne of that expense is felt to be insufficient; America and India, cramped and restricted as it still

is, is importing their produce at a less duty than other countries? and that they have lately sought for further protection, abundantly sufficient to show what that extension might we hear every day that West Indian cultivation is no loz

Have they not bounties also on its re-exportation? Yet declaring, that without it they shall be ruined: And so have been, under a conduct governed by more liberal and they will, by the operation of the general laws, ordained enlightened views. We have seen, for instance, the cot- part of the mother country, the planters will be ruined.

ger protitable, and that, without further sacrifices on the by a just and wise Providence, if they continue to adhere ton-trade, not only giving full employment to the popula. But can the planters suppose that this country is prepared to a system which is radically wicked and unjust, and tion of the districts in England where it is now carried on; which must fall. but, since the removal of some absurd regulations in the burdens, for no other purpose than to support an unus

to make these further sacrifices ? to submit to still heavier Slavery being a forced and unnatural state of society, last Session of Parliament, we have seen with delight some can only exist with high prices of produce, and becomes branches of this trade extending to Ireland, and presenting system, which is at the same time unprofitable

, but enly gradually extinguished in a competition with free labour. the best means of improving and raising her depressed longer for such ruinous support, let them enpiof the Thus we see it gradually diminishing in the northern population! Had we but employed the means within our parts of the United States, where there is the greatest com

means of improvement which are amply within thes own power, of diffusing employment, civilization, and petition of free labour, and where slave labour is therefore comfort, over the regions of Asia, Africa, and America, we power. Let them examine what it is that enables the of least value; and, on the contrary, in those States, as we comfort for the suffering and depressed, though generous even with another system of slavery, are so great and obshould long since have received in return, employment and competitors to undersell them ; they will soon perceive, that

if the advantages of one system of slavery, as on pared proceed southward, where there is less competition of free labour, and its profits are therefore increased, there we see minded population of Ireland ? and even now, if we will vious as they will find them to be, the comparative

advaslavery in its worst form ; for in proportion to the prices but pursue this policy, we shall soon reap an abundant re- tages of free labour will prove infinitely greater! of produce, or the profits of the system, are its severities.

But if we are still to make such immense sacrifices for

We have seen that the cultiration of indigo, br tre Low prices of produce, also, compel the adoption of the best and most economical systems; and thus lead almost the colonies, we ought at least to receive in return an labour, in the East Indies, has almost wholly super necessarily to an improved treatment of the slaves ; and, overflow of wealth and prosperity from them. But in- its cultivation by slaves in the Western world; and this in point of fact, low prices of produce have generally been stead of this, we shall find, that to the general pros- was the only article which could bear the high charges et beneficial to the slaves ; whilst high prices have as gene. the West Indies and Ireland. The slavery of the West India Company If the obstructions to our womere

perity of this country there are two grand exceptions, conveyance to Europe during the monopuly of the East rally been injurieus to them. High prices alone have Indies, and the condition of a large part of the popu- with India were removed, similar success would, doublico supported the destructive system which has kept slavery lation of Ireland, form two dark stains on the other. attend the culture of sugar and cotton, so as to compelli in existence, for slavery can only exist where the popula- wise bright and cheering picture. No true friend to this adoption of free labour in the West Indies. It is uxos tion is in a ratio greatly below the demand for labour. In Jamaica, we have seen how the population has been country can be indifferent to the condition of our Irish however, to pursue a subject which has been sa crupleazı kept down, and slavery has been upheld, by means of that brethren. Now the most cursory observer, in contempla: established, that all controversy upon it must nou baix system; for it is obvious, that were the population as great

ting the state of Ireland, cannot fail to remark the immense ever at rest; and referring the reader to Hodgsor's Ler there in proportion as it is in England, there could exist superiority of the condition of the north as compared with 20 Say, we shall only just state, that amolyst the c! no temptation to maintain slavery. Who, indeed, in this the south. The employment afforded by the linen trade proofs of the advantages of free labour, the experims 3: di country, would ever think of holding men in slavery with in the north, is an obvious cause of this superiority, and gradually raising slaves to the rank of free men, was ruas? a hope of profit? And what but the waste of human life points out to us a practical remedy for the distress of the successfully tried in the British West Indies, by Joshua which has taken place in the West Indies, has there pre. to remark, that from the recent rapid increase of the cotton and fear; by treating his slaves as human beings, this tem

other parts of that country ; and here it is most important Steel! By the substitution of hope of reward for fors vented a gradual approach to such a state of things?

trade, we see a part of it already beginning to flow to:vards nevolent individual stopped the gradual decrease in the An increase in the supply of men, as of any article, Ireland, so as to afford the most cheering hopes of what numbers; and, after following this system for the stan makes them bear a less price, until at length they become might be soon effected by a liberal and enlightened policy. period of only four years and three mouths, he tripled tak worth nothing as saleable property ; but this is no loss to It might, indeed, be incontestibly own, that the very annual net produce of his estate, their master ; for, by industry and good management, he same restrictions which mainly s. e to maintain the

Amongst all the obvious disadvantages of slave labo will have a great increase of produce, and probably of in- l bondage of the colonial slaves, also serve to bind down the there is none more striking than its tendency to úton


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