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All along the branches creeping,
Through the velvet foliage peeping,
Little infant fruits we see

Nursing into luxury!

At Teos we first learned the miserable fate of our patron and friend Polycrates. Since the recovery of the ring of Theodorus, the celebrated Samian artist, he had enjoyed a series of success which was only interrupted by the event which deprived him of his fortune and his life. Although pleased with luxurious elegance and a liberal patron of the arts and sciences, he was too much of a politician to regard the duties of justice where they might militate with his interest. Having some reason to apprehend a revolt among his subjects, he resorted to an experiment for which he afterwards had full reason to repent. His former friend and ally, Cambyses, being about to organize an immense force for an expedition against Egypt, and finding it difficult to procure a fleet, Polycrates privately conveyed information to him that if he would demand a contribution of force to the armament from the Samians, he would obtain some assistance. The requisition, as had been foreseen, was made: and Polycrates accordingly equipped forty trieme galleys, and manned them with the most factious and discontented of his subjects. After the conquest of Egypt, he endeavoured to have them retained by the monarch of Persia, but not succeeding in this stratagem, he refused to permit them to return to their own country.

In this predicament, the turbulent outcasts applied to the Spartans for succour, which was readily granted. Samos was beseiged for a length of time, but the Spartans not finding that they made any progress, returned to Peloponnessus for reinforcements.

Polycrates had long entertained the chimerical hope of being able at some period to make all the islands of the Ægeum, as well as all Ionia and Æolia, acknowledge his sway. For this purpose he had continually augmented his naval power, and this last proof of its strength, was so flattering to his abilities and his ambition, that he became less cautious in talking of his projects. His designs had been suspected by Oroetes, Satrap of Sardis, who envied his talents and feared his power. The wily Persian resolved to circumvent him by stratagem, as he knew he could not conquer him by force. He sent an embassy to the Tyrant and invited him to his court. Polycrates, who expected by this visit to form a powerful alliance against the future attempts of the Spartans and his banished subjects, accordingly went, attended by a numerous and magnificent retinue. He had no sooner arrived than the Satrap, in violation of all the rights of hospitality and good faith, and to the utter prostration of his own dignity, seized upon his person and caused him to be put to death by the most ignominious and excruciating of all punishments. He then beseiged the island of Samos,

which after a vain struggle surrendered to his arms, and I had the bitter mortification of seeing a Persian rule over the lands of my forefathers,

This was the first Grecian island, except Cyprus, that was reduced to the Persian dominion.

The first intelligence we had from Athens was not calculated to dissipate the gloom into which we were thrown by the fate of one, who, whatever might have been his public character, had ever been kind and liberal towards us. A free populace is ever prepared to hail the dawn of a revolution, without considering its probable consequences. Hence the murderers of the amiable Hipparchus were saluted as the restorers of public freedom, and their names were regarded with an enthusiasm approaching to adoration. The turbulent genius of our old friend Alcous yet raged against all those who were clothed with the ensignia of authority, and he was among the foremost in eulogizing the false patriotism of two unprincipled murderers. But he and those misguided men, who regarded this event as favourable to the interests and happiness of their country, became afterwards convinced by severe experience, that it would have been better to have submitted to a few imaginary inconveniencies, than wantonly provoke the just resentment of vengeance and power.


Fear and anger when associated generally produce that cruelty which is calculated to dismay opposition. A system of proscription and severity accordingly commenced, in which the Tyrant enjoyed an ample revenge for the atrocious deed which deprived him of a beloved brother and left him alone upon the throne. Ignorant of the extent and projectors of the conspiracy, Hippias had condemned many of the noblest citizens of Athens to death: and when they contrasted the tumult and disorder of the present time with the tranquillity that formerly prevailed, it was acknowledged, with a sigh, that they had indeed been happy under Solon and Pisistratus and that the reign of the Tyrant Hipparchus had brought back the golden days of Saturn.

In the course of a short time, for I will here dismiss this subject, the severities which he exercised, made it necessary for Hippias to strengthen his own power by some foreign alliance, and he accordingly gave his only daughtert in marriage to antides, son of

*Από σφων κλεοσ εσσεται κατ' αιαν
Φίλτατε Αρμοδιο και Αριςογείτων
Ότι τον τυραννον κτανετον
Ισονομές τ' Αθήνας εποιησατον.


"Forever shall your glory endure, oh! most beloved Harmodius and Aristogeiton, for you destroyed the Tyrant, and to you Athens owes her equal laws."

The epitaph on the monument of this exemplary woman, in Lampsacus is recorded by Thucydides; and is remarkable for an elegant sim

Hippocles, Tyrant of Lampsacus. This connection was deemed a very important one, as Hippocles possessed considerable interest at the Persian court. But it was not sufficient to protect Hippias, who was afterwards driven from his throne and banished from the city by the Alcmœnidæ, assisted by the Lacedemonians.


(To be Continued.)

ART. II.-Letters from the West.
No. 6.

If, in the little circle of my intellectual pleasures, there is one which afforded me more enjoyment than another, it consists in tracing the varieties of character, which exist in the different branches of our great national family. It is interesting to observe, how soon every new country-nay, even every little colony, adopts some trait of habit, or manners peculiar to itself. These may be ascribed to local circumstances; climate, soil, and situation, all contribute to produce them. The keen blast that invigorates the frame, or the sultry beam that relaxes the system, induce a correspondent effect upon the mind; abundance leads to luxury, while the inhabitant of a niggard soil must be frugal and industrious. But there are a thousand other causes, which produce particular customs, in particular places; and this diversity, which to me is highly entertaining, affords an ample fund of vexation to the fastidious, and makes room for innumerable sarcasms, from those travellers who delight in ridiculing every thing which does not exactly accord with their own habits, or notions of propriety. One of Shakespeare's contemporaries, in speaking of him says, "Ben Jonson and he did gather humours of men dayly, wherever they came." We have seen how our great dramatist profited by this employment; but our modern travellers seem rather disposed to get rid of their own humours, than to collect those of other people. But ridicule is not the test of truth; and it might puzzle those gentlemen to give a good reason, why their own customs are intrinsically better, than those which amuse them abroad;-you may smile at the rings in an Indian lady's nose, but why should they not be as graceful as those in the American lady's ears?

The American colonies were peopled from Great Britain, and the western states derive their inhabitants, chiefly, from New-England and Virginia. Yet when the American looks back at his British ancestor, he discovers few traits of similarity; and the backwoodsman is almost as far removed from his eastern progenitor.

plicity of panegyric, which is not totally lost, even in a literal translation: it proves how little the word Tyrant was then a term of reproach

"This dust covers Archedice, daughter of Hippias, in his time the first of the Greeks. Daughter, sister, wife, and mother, of Tyrants, her mind was never inflamed to arrogance. 22


In the great matters of religion and law, all of us in the United States are the same; as the children of one family, when they separate in the world, still preserve the impress of those principles, which they imbibed from a common source; but in all matters of taste and fancy, customs and exterior deportment, we find a variance. Those who live under the same government, participate in the same laws, and profess the same religion-whose representatives mingle in council, whose warriors rally under the same bannerwho celebrate the same victories, and mourn for the same disasters, must have many feelings and sentiments in common, though they may differ in their modes of evincing them. Thus he, who would attempt to portray the American character, must draw, not a single portrait, but a family piece containing several heads. In each of these, would be discovered some strong lines common to all;the same active, enterprising, and independent spirit,-the same daring soul, and inventive genius-and that aptitude or capacity to take advantage of every change, and to subsist and flourish in every soil and situation. But each would have a shade, or cast of expression, peculiar to itself; and at the first glance there would be seen no more resemblance, between the Boston merchant, the Virginian planter, and the hunter of the West, than if they had sprung from different sources. Observe them more closely, however, or rouse their energies into action, and you will still find, in each section of our country, the same American spirit, which glowed in the breasts of Putnam, of Marion, and of Wayne. Show me a strong line in the South, and I will point out to you a kindred feature in the North,-produce a Jackson from the West and I will bring you a Perry from the east. In private life, the amiable unassuming Rhode-Islander might present a striking contrast to the fiery Tennessean; but the soul of the hero burned with not less ardour on lake Erie-the light of the victory was not less brilliant -than at New Orleans.

Thence it is, that foreigners err, when they give a character to our whole population, from observations made in a single sea-port; or when they allow us no national character at all, because they diseover traits in different places which seem to be the very antipodes of each other. In this latter sapient hypothesis, they evince, to gether with a good deal of ignorance, not a little of that insolence which distinguishes our foreign detractors. There is no people in the world whose national character is better defined, or more strongly marked, than our own. If the European theory on this subject was correct, is it not a little strange, that our Yankee tars, whether on board of a frigate or a privateer, should always happen to play the same game, when they come athwart an Englishman? Is it not a little singular, that Brown in the North, and Jackson in the South, who I suspect never saw each other in their lives, should always happen to handle Lord Wellington's veterans exactly after the same fashion? Accidents will happen in the best of fami

lies-but when an accident occurs in the same family repeatedly, we are apt to suspect that it runs in the blood.

In the different states there is certainly a great disparity in the manners of the people. In New-England the soil is not rich, and the population is dense. The mass of the people are, of course, laborious, close, and frugal. The colonists were men of pure manners, and religious habits. In all their municipal regulations, the suppression of vice and immorality-or rather the exclusion of them, for they had none to suppress-formed a leading principle. Persons of this character would probably be inclined to lead domestic lives, and to be satisfied with cheap and innocent amusements. Thus every man, happy in the society of his family, and his neighbours, preferred the little circle in which he found content. and cheerfulness, to all the world besides. Not sufficiently wealthy to be seduced by the syren song of pleasure, nor so poor as to become debased by want, he neither spurned, nor courted, the stranger that approached his door. He was not unwilling to perform an act of charity or kindness, nor ashamed to offer what his humble board afforded; but he wished to know something of the character of the person whom he received into his friendship, whose vices might injure him in his substance, or whose licentiousness might contaminate the morals of his children. The man whose home is thus the sphere of his usefulness, and the scene of his enjoyments, must feel deeply interested in every object around him; the conduct of his neighbours, the morals of his servants, and the minds of his children, concern him too nearly to be neglected. Thus he is apt to become, not only an industrious and virtuous citizen himself, but a watchful observer of the conduct of others. Such were the manners of the primitive settlers in New England, and such they remain in many parts of it to this day. But their local situation was not such as to allow them to retain their rural character in its pristine chastity. In repelling the hostile incursions which threatened to destroy their infant settlements, they acquired confidence in their courage, and many of their youth imbibed a military spirit, which rendered their former avocations insipid. The situation of their country, bounded by an extensive sea coast, indented with noble harbours, presented commercial advantages, too inviting to be neglected; and the enterprising temper of the people soon rendered them as conspicuous among the hardy sons of the ocean, as they had been exemplary in more peaceful scenes. The commercial spirit, thus engrafted upon the "steady habits" of these people, has given them a cast of character, peculiar to themselves. Hardy and independent-ingenious in devising, and indefatigable in executing, any plan of which the end is gain-pursuing their designs with ardour and enthusiasm, yet adhering to them constantly, conducting them prudently, and concealing them artfully, if necessary,-there is no people so versatile in their genius, and none so universally successful in their undertakings. In their

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