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well received among the Romans, that he was enrolled a citizen of Rome, and had a statue erected to his memory. His writings were also admitted into the imperial library: the Romans may further be considered as the guardians of the intergrity of his text; and the Jews we may be assured, would use all diligence, to preYet it vent any interpolation in favour of the Christian cause. cannot be discovered that any objection was ever made to this passage, by any of the opposers of the Christian faith in the early ages; their silence therefore concerning such a charge is a decisive proof that the passage is not a forgery. Indeed, the Christian cause is so far from needing any fraud to support it, that nothing could be more destructive to its interest, than a fraud so palpable and obtrusive.

To this strong chain of evidence for the genuineness of Josephus's testimony, various objections have been made, of which the following are the principal:

OBJECTION 1. This passage was not cited by any early Christians before Eusebius, such as Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, or Origen: nor is it cited by Chrysostom or Photius, who lived after his time.

ANSWER.-There is no strength in this negative argument against Eusebius, drawn from the silence of the ancient fathers. The fathers did not cite the testimony of Josephus, 1. either because they had no copies of his works; or 2. because his testimony was foreign to the design which they had in writing; which was, to convince the Jews that Jesus was the Messiah, out of the old Testament, and consequently they had no need of other evidence; or 3. because, on account of this very testimony, the evidence of Josephus was disregarded by the Jews themselves.*

OBJECTION 2. The passage in question interrupts the order of the narration, and is unlike the style of Josephus.

ANSWER.--It is introduced naturally in the course of the historian's narrative, the order of which it does not disturb. It is introduced under the article of Pilate, and connected with two circumstances, which occasioned disturbances; and was not the putting of Jesus to death, and the continuance of the apostles and disciples after him declaring his resurrection, another very considerable circumstance, which created very great disturbances? And though Josephus does not say this in so express terms, yet he intimates it by connecting it with the two causes of commotion, by giving so honourable a testimony to Jesus, and telling us that he was crucified at the instigation of the chief persons of the Jewish nation. It would scarcely have been decent in him to have said

*The above refuted objection is examined in detail by Professor Vernet, in his Traité de la Verité de la Religion Chretienne, tome `ix, pp. 165-221.

more on this head. The following view of the connection of the passage now under consideration, will confirm and illustrate the preceding remarks.

In his Jewish Antiquities (Book xviii. c. i.) he relates, in the first section, that Pilate introduced Cæsar's images into Jerusalem, and that in consequence of this measure producing a tumult, he commanded them to be carried thence to Cæsarea. In the second section, he gives an account of Pilate's attempt to bring a current of water to Jerusalem, the expense of which he defrayed out of the sacred money: this also caused a tumult, in which a great number of Jews was slain. In the third section he relates that, about the same time Pilate crucified Jesus who was called Christ, a wise and holy man: (§ 4.) about the same time also, he adds, another sad calamity put the Jews into disorder, which he promises to narrate after he had given an account of a most flagitious crime which was perpetrated at Rome in the temple of Isis; and after detailing all its circumstances he proceeds (§ 5.) agreeable to his promise, to describe the expulsion of the Jews from Rome, by the emperor Tiberius, in consequence of the villanous conduct of four of their countrymen. Such is the connexion of the whole chapter: and when it is fairly considered, we may safely challenge any one to say, whether the passage under consideration interrupts the order of narration; on the contrary, if it be taken out, that connexion is irrecoverably broken. It is manifest, that Josephus relates events in the order in which they happened, and that they are connected together only by the time when they took place.

With regard to the objection that the passage in question is unlike the style of Josephus, it is sufficient to reply in the quaint but expressive language of Huet, that one egg is not more like another than is the style of this passage to the general style of his writings. Objections from style are often fanciful; and Daubuz has proved, by actual collation, the perfect coincidence between its style and that of Josephus in other parts of his works. This objection, therefore, falls to the ground.

OBJECTION 3.-The testimony of Josephus concerning Jesus could not possibly have been recorded by him: for he was not only a Jew, but also rigidly attached to the Jewish religion. The ex pressions are not those of a Jew, but of a Christian.

ANSWER.-Josephus was not so addicted to his own religion, as to approve the conduct and opinion of the Jews concerning Christ and his doctrine. From the moderation which pervades his whole

* See Daubuz, Pro Testimonio Josephi de Jesu Christo, contra Tan. Fabrum et alios, (8vo. Lond 1706.) pp. 128-205. The whole of this Dissertation is reprinted at the end of the second volume of Havercamp's edition of Josephus's works. Mr. Whiston has abridged the collation of Daubuz in Dissertation I. pp. v.-vii. prefixed to his translation of the Jewish historian, folio, London, 1737.

narrative of the Jewish war, it may justly be inferred, that the fanatic fury which the chief men of his nation exercised against He has renChrist, could not but have been displeasing to him. dered that attestation to the innocence, sanctity, and miracles of Christ, which the fidelity of history required: nor does it follow that he was necessitated to renounce on this account the religion of his fathers. Either the common prejudices of the Jews, that their Messiah would be a victorious and temporal sovereign, or the indifference so prevalent in towards controverted quesmany tions, might have been sufficient to prevent him from renouncing the religion in which he had been educated, and embracing a new one, the profession of which was attended with danger: or else, he might think himself at liberty to be either a Jew or a Christian, as the same God was worshipped in both systems of religion. On either of these suppositions Josephus might have written every thing which this testimony contains; as will be evident from the following critical examination of the passage.

"-does The expression,-" if it be lawful to call him a man," not imply that Josephus believed Christ to be God, but only an extraordinary man, one whose wisdom and works had raised him above the common condition of humanity. He represents him as having" performed many wonderful works." In this there is nothing singular, for the Jews themselves, his contemporaries, acknowledge that he wrought many mighty works. Compare Matt. xiii. 54. xiv, 2, &c. and the parallel passages in the other Gospels. Josephus farther says, that "he was a teacher of such men as gladly received the truth with pleasure,"-both because the moral precepts of Christ were such as Josephus approved, and also because the disciples of Christ were influenced by no other motive than the desire of discerning it." He drew over to him many, both Jews and Gentiles." How true this was, at the time when Josephus "This man was wrote it is unnecessary to show. The phrase, the Christ,”—or rather, "Christ was this man" (ò Xgisos OUTOS NY,)— by no means intimates that Jesus was the Messiah, but only that he was the person called Christ both by the Christians and Romans; just as if we should say, "this was the same man as he named Jesus Christ." Xeços is not a doctrinal name, but a proper name. was a common name, and would not have sufficiently pointed out The name, by the person intended to the Greeks and Romans. which he was known to them was Chrestus, or Christus, as we read in Suetonius and Tacitus; and if (as there is every reason to believe) Tacitus had read Josephus, he most probably took this very name from the Jewish historian. With regard to the resurrection of Christ, and the prophecies referring to him, Josephus rather speaks the language used by the Christians, than his own private opinion; or else he thought that Christ had appeared after his revival, and that the prophets had foretold this event, a point which, if admitted, and if he had been consistent, ought to have induced him to em

brace Christianity. But it will readily be imagined, that there might be many circumstances to prevent his becoming a proselyte; nor is it either new or wonderful that men especially in their religious concerns, should contradict themselves and withstand the conviction of their own minds. It is certain that, in our own times, no one has spoken in higher terms concerning Christ, than M. Rousseau; who nevertheless, not only in his other writings, but also in the very work that contains the very eloquent eulogium alluded to, inveighs against Christianity with acrimony and rancour.*

The whole of the evidence concerning the much litigated passage of Josephus is now before the reader; who, on considering it in all its bearings, will doubtless agree with the writer of these pages, that it is GENUINE, and consequently affords a noble testimony to the credibility of the facts related in the New Testament.

ART. X.-Anecdotes.

SOME years ago a case was sent to an eminent lawyer for an opinion. The case stated was the most preposterous and improbable that ever occurred to the mind of man, and concluded by asking, whether, under such circumstances, an action would lie? He took his pen and wrote. "Yes, if the witnesses will lie too, but not otherwise."

A magistrate, in filling up an order, committed numerous trespasses on the laws of orthography; upon some of them being pointed out by a bystander, he exclaimed-"Hang it, Sir, who can spell with such a pen as this?”

In Mr. Graydon's interesting Memoirs of a Life chiefly passed in Pennsylvania, there is another joke at the expense of this wor shipful fraternity. In depicting the state of manners which prevailed in Philadelphia, previous to the Revolution, he informs us that the tranquillity of the good people was often disturbed by the mad pranks of two British officers, who for want of something better to do, occasionally plunged themselves into excesses of

* Appendix to the Life of Dr. Lardner, Nos. IX. and X. 4to. vol. v. pp. xlv.-xlviii. Works, 8vo. vol. i. pp. clv.-clxviii. Vernet, Traité de la Verité de la Religion Chretienne, tom. ix. pp. 1-236. Huet, Demonstratio Evangelica, Propositio III. vol. I. pp. 46-56. Bretschneider's Capita Theologiæ, Judæorum Dogmatica, e Flavii Josephi Scriptis collecta (8vo. Lipsia 18) pp. 59-64. See also Vindica Flavianæ, or a Vindication of the Testimony given by Josephus concerning our Saviour Jesus Christ. By Jacob Bryant, Esq. 8vo. London, 1780. Dr. John Jones has shown that Josephus has alluded to the spread of Christianity in other parts of his works; see his " Series of important Facts, demonstrating the Truth of the Christian Religion, drawn from the writings of its friends and enemies in the first and second centuries," (8vo. London, 1820.) pp. 9-22. He considers the Jewish historian as a Christian.

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intemperance. In this situation they roamed about the streets, at all hours, to the dire dismay of the sober and the timid. On one occasion, their conduct was so reprehensible at the Coffee house, that the citizens claimed the protection of the law. Mr. Chew happening to be there, undertook, in virtue of his office of Recorder, to write their commitment, but Ogle, facetiously jogging his elbow, and interrupting him with a repetition of the pitiful interjection of "Ah now Mr. Chew!" he was driven from his gravity, and obliged to throw away the pen. It was then taken up by alderman Mn with a determination to go through with the business, when the culprits reeling round him, and Ögle in particular, hanging over his shoulder and reading after him as he wrote, at length with irresistible effect, hit upon an unfortunate oversight of the alderman. Ah" said he "my father was a justice of the peace too, but he did not spell that word as you do. I remember perfectly well, that instead of an S he always used to spell CIRCUMSTANCE with a C." This sarcastic thrust at the scribe entirely turned the tide in favour of the rioters; and the company being disarmed of their resentment, the alderman had no disposition to provoke a criticism by going on with the mitti


In the year 1793, the Prussian officers of the garrison of Colberg, established an economical mess, of which certain poor emigrants were glad to partake. They observed one day an old major of hussars, who was covered with scars received in the "seven years' war," and half hidden by enormous gray mustachios. The conversation turned on duels. A young stout-built cornet began to prate in an authoritative tone on the subject. "And you, Major, how many duels have you fought?"-"None, thank Heaven," answered the old hussar in a subdued voice; "I have fourteen wounds, and, Heaven be praised, they are not in my back; so I may be permitted to say that I feel myself happy in never having fought a duel:"-" By Jove! you shall fight one with me," exclaimed the cornet, reaching across to give him a blow. But the sacrilegious hand did not touch the old mustachios. The major, agitated, grasped the table to assist him in rising, when a unanimous cry was raised-" Stehen sie rhuie herr, major!" "Don't stir, Mr. Major." All the officers present seized the cornet, threw him out of the window, and sat down to table as if nothing had happened. Every eye was moist with tears.

When the English were good Catholics, they usually drank the Pope's health in a full glass after dinner: au bon pere, whence the word bumper.

When Sir Isaac Newton was asked about the continuance of the rising of South Sea Stock?-he answered "that he could not calculate the madness of the people."

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