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spasms. Upon the latter subject, instead of adducing instances, we beg leave to refer to Boerhaave's experiments in the Foundling Hospital at Haerlem, in order that we may have room for an impressive and will authenticated fact respecting the sympathetic affinity of individuals. The romance and beauty of the tale are extremely dramatic.

When the Count de la Tour Laudre was in London, we believe ambassador from Louis XIII., a young shoemaker, in taking his measure, become strangely agitated, was seized with a violent hemorrhage at the nose, and fainted away. This was considered at first as accidental, but when the man returned, to fit on the shoes after they were made, he was immediately, on approaching the Count, again affected as before. De la Tour was much struck with the circumstance, for at that time the doctrine of sympathies was more in vogue than at present; he inquired into the history of the young man, and learned that he was born in France, but taken at a tender age to Bohemia, and afterwards to Holland, whence he had come to England. The Count was the more interested by this narration, for a child of his sister, who died in giving it birth, had been stolen, and never heard of, and he began to think that there was something providential in the phenomena which he had witnessed in the young man. He in consequence directed inquiries to be instituted, and in the end traced effectually and completely that the youth was his nephew; established his right to the title and estates of the Baron de Vesins, the husband of his sister, and in perpetual commemoration of the event, founded an hospital at Rochelle, which Louis XIII., in 1637, endowed with particular privileges.

But we have already adverted sufficiently to the many curious effects of inexplicable sympathies, or by whatever other name such mysteries of our nature may be called, otherwise we might inquire from what experience it has been formed, or how it happens, that we so often think of absent persons involuntarily, and presently they make their appearance, or why it is that when we sometimes approach the door of a friend with the intention of paying a visit, we are inwardly informed that he is not in the house. All these, and many other marvellous things, the magnetizers discuss with much ingenuity, and explain with surprising plausibility.

The facts which the magnetizers have collected respecting the influence of dreams, are even more curious than any thing we have yet stated, and they are the more deserving of attention, as they are not at variance with any established principle of metaphysical science. We need not refer our readers to the exposition of the phenomenon of dreams by Dugald Stewart, in which he traces it to associations excited independently of the will, as Darwin concisely and poetically expresses it," The will presides "not in the bower of sleep." There is no difference between their doctrine and his, but the ancient opinion of inspiring par

ticular dreams, has been revived by Schmid, with considerable plausibility; and what is the more remarkable, the method he prescribes is exactly similar to the description which Milton gives of Satan, whispering to the sleeping Eve. Milton, it is well known, was a great student of recondite literature, and doubtless formed his description from some ancient treatise on the art of forming dreams. Kluge mentions that he had himself received an account of a young man that obtained the affections of a girl who disliked him, while awake, by " whispering soft nonsense in her ear" as she lay asleep. When she afterwards became his wife, she informed him that her aversion had been changed by the influence of pleasant dreams. Not having the book at hand, we cannot refer to it particularly, but Beattie, in his Critical and Moral Dissertations, mentions a story of an English officer, whom his companions, by softly whispering in his ear, could make dream what they pleased, in so much, that on one occasion they made him, in his slumber, go through all the particulars of a duel, from the beginning of the quarrel to the firing of the pistol. But enough of all this. Granting to the magnetizers that all their ancecotes are true, we can still regard their doctrine but as a sort of medical fanaticism, and it may be briefly and rationally described as assuming a number of acknowledged facts, uniting them with suppositious excitances, and deducing from the combination a systematic exposition of phenomena, which, although unquestioned, are not explicable by the principles upon which the practice of the magnetizers is founded. We should apologize to our readers for the length to which we have carried this article, but we were desirous of presenting such an account of animal magnetism as might be referred to, there being as yet no general view of the subject in the English language.

The essay on the sentient faculty is written by a Swedish nobleman, a member of the magnetic Society established by the Marquis de Puysegur, and the translator states in his preface that "several continental sovereigns have publicly acknowledged its "validity, (i. e. human magnetism,) and among the rest the King "of Prussia, by a solemn decree. To prevent abuses, he has "limited its practice as a profession, to members of the faculty; 'he has appointed a professor of it (Dr. Wolfart,) in the Royal "Academy of Berlin, and has founded an hospital for the cure of "diseases by the magnetic practice."

Of the essay itself, we shall only say that it seems to have been the object of the author, chiefly to domonstrate that our five senses bear upon a common point of analogy, indicative of a primary and general form of perception, modified by each sense in a specific manner-and that merely as a metaphysical disquisition, it is highly curious, and well deserving the attention of students addicted to that science.


ART. IV.-Memoirs of Henry the First, late king of Hayti.

CHRISTOPHE, alias HENRY I. late king of Hayti, was born in 1767. The place of his birth is not exactly known: some imagine it to be the Island of St. Christopher's, whence he was conveyed to Cape Francois, and sold to an English merchant, whose name was Bedeche: others, that he was born at St. Domingo, on the plantation of Limonade, which then belonged to the celebrated transla tor, Dureau de la Malle.-However this may be, Henry Christophe began to render himself remarkable at the very beginning of the troubles of St. Domingo, for his great stature, his harsh and fierce disposition, and a certain strength of character, which has since been the cause of his elevation. Being at first appointed as superintendant over the negro slaves, he employed in this office a rigorous severity: but when the revolution broke out Christophe changed his character, and from a persecutor of negroes became a persecutor of the whites. He was, nevertheless, but little known before the arrival of General Leclerc, in 1802. In the insurrection of the blacks, he followed their troops, pillaged, massacred the whites, and bought, at a low price, the booty of his comrades. He thus acquired a considerable fortune, and was enabled to become the chief of the band. Having assembled a small troop, he overran the country, encouraging the rising of the blacks, and supporting them with his arms: he thus acquired a species of re


Toussaint Louverture, who was then General-in-Chief of the negroes, made him General of Brigade, and sent him to fight against his nephew, General Moise, a young officer not destitute of courage, but who aimed at supplanting him. Christophe had recourse to stratagem.-He went over to Moise, pretended to enter into his resentment and succeeded by this atrocious dissimulation in obtaining his confidence, of which he took advantage, arrested him in the midst of his army, and sent him to Touissaint. Moise was massacred by his uncle's orders, and Christophe obtained the command of the northern province in his stead.

Moise had a great number of partizans, who openly aspired to avenge his death. In the evening of the 21st October, there was an insurrection at the Cape, and the insurgents began to massacre all those who were noted for their attachment to Toussaint. Christophe instantly mounted his horse, attacked the insurgents in person, killed two with his own hand, dispersed the multitude, and got the chiefs arrested. The plan entered into by Christophe on this day was executed with such precision and prudence, that on the next day a great number of the inhabitants were ignorant of what had passed, and the warehouses were opened as usual. The fol lowing days news was successively brought of the rising of the quarters of Acul, Limbe, Port Margot, Marmelade, Plaisance and Dondon. Christophe, at the head of a detachment of infantry and some dragoons, rushed forward to all the places where the



insurgents had risen, alarmed the mutineers, and made them lay down their arms, while he ordered the chiefs to be shot.

In the beginning of 1802 he was still commander of the Cape. Being compelled, after a vigorous resistance, to yield to the troops of General Leclerc, he set fire to the town before he left it, and went to join Toussaint Louverture, with three thousand men. Soon after this he negociated with the French, gave them apparent proofs of submission, and succeeded in disarming the insurrectionary districts. But perceiving the army of Leclerc weakened, he again went over to the blacks, after the carrying off of Toussaint, leagued himself with Dessalines, powerfully contributed to his successes, and obliged the French to evacuate the colony. -Dessalines remaining now the tranquil possessor of St. Domingo, took the title of Emperor of Hayti, under the name of James I.; and Christophe, whose services had been so useful to him, became one of his generals, and one of the first men of his court. But this new empire, established by force and violence over an ignorant and barbarous people, was to experience no less vicissitudes, than governments established among nations more enlightened by philosophers.

As it has happened in all ages and all countries, the lieutenants of the black Emperor soon became jealous of his power; and those who had contributed the most to establish him, Christophe and Petion, were not long before they declared themselves his enemies, they exclaimed against despotism and tyranny, excited the negroes to rebellion against Dessalines, under a pretence of a tax that the latter had established on the exportation of sugar and cotton; led him into a snare laid for him, and murdered him in the midst of his troops, on the 17th October, 1806.

Christophe was immediately proclaimed President and Generalissimo of the state of Hayti, and Petion was his Lieutenant and Governor in the south. A national assembly was convoked at Cape Francois to form a constitution. This was the period of the first divisions between two men who, until then, appeared to have the same aim in view. Petion put himself at the head of a party who wished for a senate and representative system of government. Christophe wished no authority to counterbalance with his own; and seeing himself at the head of a more numerous party, he declared in a proclamation he issued as sovereign against the rebel Petion, that authority belongs to the strongest. In order to prove the truth of so incontestible an axiom, the President Christophe assembled all his troops, made active preparations against his rival, who on his part had assembled considerable forces, and had taken his station at Port-au Prince. Petion being attacked several times very severely he was at last beaten in several rencounters, but was never entirely defeated; and it happened that at the moment when he was outlawed, and even when the report of his death was

spread throughout the island, that he reappeared, with new strength. Christophe never reigned over the whole island of Hayti.

Christophe at last assumed the title of king and was crowned in the month of April, 1811.--A capuchin friar, named Cornelius Boell, crowned him in the church of the Cape; and consecrated him with some oil of the cocoatree. The new Sovereign framed his court on the same footing as that of Bonaparte. In imitation of the Corsican the black King changed his name and took that of Henry I.; attributing to himself likewise the power of creating titles, he established a number of Negro Dukes, Counts, and Barons, and distributed among them the principal plantations of the Colony, which he erected into Fiefs or Lordships. Thus there was a Count of Limonade, a Duke of Marmelade, a Prince of Sale Frone, Barons of Jeremy and Seringo, knights of Coco, of Jaco, &c. &c. all these were decked out with ribands of the Legion of Henry, a proper caricature of the Legion of HonIn short this martial black King had even an almoner; but he in vain requested of the Pope to make an Archbishop of this man, who was no other than the capuchin friar Cornelius Boell; the latter, was the only white person at the court of Hayti, and the only one of the lords of the court who knew how to read or write. His title is that of the duke de l'Anse.


The dominion of the king of Hayti extended over the whole of the northern part of the island, and in the interior, as far as the mountains of Ciboo and the plains of St. Yago. Petion, who declared himself independent, commanded, under the title of President, all the Southern part.

Christophe seemed not to be wanting in skill in the art of governing, generously recompensing his partizans: he displayed great firmness against the enemies of his power, and spoke wonderfully well of liberal ideas; he succeeded latterly also in forming commercial relations with several European nations. He could not read, and wrote just enough to be able to sign his own


After the fall of Buonaparte, the treaty of Paris having restored to France its former ultramarine possessions, one of the first cares of his majesty Louis XVIII. was to endeavour to recover them, This Prince immediately sent agents whose mission was to sound the disposition of the inhabitants, and to ascertain whether there were not means to enter into arrangements with their chiefs. According to their report, Petion expressed a willingness to acknowledge the authority of the mother country, Christophe at first expressed great joy on hearing of the fall of Buonaparte, and loudly proclaimed the desire which he formed of entertaining amicable relations with France, now restored to her lawful Kings. He declared consequently that he would respect the white flag, and that his ports should be opened to French vessels, but he expressed at the same time a firm resolution never to renounce the

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