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after, was found dead with the little childe alive, but fast clasped between the arms of the dead mother, which were cold and stiffe, insomuch that those who found them had much ado to get the young childe out."

The same high and noble spirit was manifested by Cromwell in favour of the Huguenots at Nismes : who, on the apprehension of similar atrocities, sent a messenger over to him or protection. He ordered the messenger back to Paris in an hour's time, with a letter of peremptory instructions to his own ambassador. Mazarin again complained of these imperious proceedings : but Cromwell was not to be moved ; and the Cardinal again yielded to the necessity imposed on him. These deeds have immortalized the memory of Cromwell in the valleys of Piedmont. Nismes and the south of France have witnessed a similar persecution of the Protestants in very late years, and found no Cromwell to frown or Mazarin to tremble.*

The Protector died at Hampton Court, 3d September, 1658, in the full possession of his faculties, and perfectly calm and composed; a tranquillity that, no doubt, says his biographer, was owing to his unconsciousness of those crimes which his enemies have so heavily loaded him.

Mr. Cromwell enters into a very elaborate defence of his ancestor against the charges of enthusiasm and hypocrisy. Cromwell,' says he, 'was certainly a religious professor, and nothing has appeared to prove him other than a really religious character.' Where enthusiasm governs, no hypocrisy can be mani. fested: they may co-exist in the same person, but they cannot rise into activity or even co-exist on the same occasion. The question is, Did Cromwell, for political purposes effect a greater degree of zeal and warmth in religion than he felt? frequent, and it is to be hoped, fervent in prayer; having, we are told, the greatest assurance of its immediate efficacy; and certainly a heated imagination is no crime in itself:—but did he never affect, for political purposes also a greater indifference in religious matters than he felt? If he did, the hypocrisy is equal in both cases. When he takes God to witness,--thus sanctioning his affirmation by a solemn oath, that he would rather have lived under his wood-side, and kept a flock of sheep than undertaken such a government as this is,” we cannot believe that he spoke truth. It appears from Burnet that, when his godly friends were closetted with him, he would talk of the Deists as Heathens and Infidels, closing his conferences by a long prayer; and this as it seems to us, for a political purpose, namely, to keep on good terms with them : with the same view as, when with the Deists, he would make a jest of his said

He was

• A detailed history of these recent attrocities has just been published, by Mr. Wilkes, and will soon attract our notice.

godly friends, namely, to keep on terms with the Deists also. Rapin, as we have before said, lets him off gently for practising this sort of management on the several parties who were all and equally his enemies: but is it not hypocritical, is it not criminal, to make long prayers like the Pharisees of old, for a pretence, whether a man aims by such means to devour widows' houses, or to juggle a political party?

It is said that Cromwell maintained the honour of the Engglish nation in all foreign countries; and that, though not a crowned head, his ambassadors had all the respect paid to them which our King's ambassadors ever obtained. All Italy trembled at his name : his feet scoured the Mediterranean ; and the Turks, from fear of offending him, delivered up Hide, who retained the character of an ambassador for the King, and was brought over and executed for it. In the body-politic or in the body-natural, however, says Mrs. Macaulay, (whose history seems altogether to have escaped the attention of Mr. Cromwell,) the first decline of a robust constitution is not attended with any great degree of visible weakness. Civil contention, that nursery for martial prowess, had produced a warlike spirit in the English, which must give at least a temporary strength to any government :-those commanders, who had fought with a neverfailing success under the banners of a commonwealth, could not forget the art of conquering after its extinction ;-and England though declining in its power from the first period of the usurpation, was more than a match for nations that were enervated by the effects of long established tyrannies. It was during the short period in which the power of England had been supported by the energy of the republican government which was overthrown by Cromwell, that it had become the terror of all Europe. Tó republics, says Mrs. Macaulay, the object of envy, to monarchs of hatred, and to both of fear, it was assiduously courted by all the states of Europe. London was full of ambassadors, endeavouring, for their respective superiors, to excuse past demerits, to renew former treaties, and to court stricter alliances. It was under the republic, also, that the whole commerce of the Dutch was cut off in the Channel, and impeded in the Baltic; that their fisheries were totally suspended ; and that above sixteen hundred of their ships were taken. To facilitate the establishment of his usurpation, Cromwell concluded a peace with the Dutch, which gave up all the splendid advantages and superiority that the nation had acquired by a successful and glorious war; and thus is he distinctly charged by the historian with having sacrificed to selfish considerations the power and interest of the country.

We cannot, however, pursue the subject farther; and we must take our leave of the present author, thanking him for the valuable addition which he has made to our historical literature. VOL. II.-YO. 3


The last chapter is devoted to the lives of Richard and Henry Cromwell, but we have not space for any discussion of them. Portraits are given of the Protector, his wife, and the sons.

Art.V.--History of Europe ; from the treaty of Paris, in 1815.

Continued from p. 136. CHAP. III.-ENGLAND. Causes of the British Expedition to Al

giers.-Sir Sidney Smith's Proposal to the Congress of Vienna.Negociatious of Sir Thomas Maitland and Lord Exmouth in the carly part of this year. Massacre of Bona.-Expedition under Lord Exmouth and Admiral Van de Capellen.-Bombardment of Algiers.-Terms of Treaty with the Dey.-Reflections.

When the representatives of the European nations were assembled together at Vienna, after the first effectual humiliation of the power of France, their attention was speedily and naturally directed towards the situation of Barbary, from the coasts of which three separate armaments of half savage banditti still continued to infest the Mediterranean sea, and so to keep awake, in a meaner and more cruel shape, the energies of war, elsewhere happily asleep for a season throughout the civilized portion of the world. Sir Sidney Smith, whose long and glorious successes in the Mediterranean had introduced him to a perfect knowledge pf the atrocious system thus persisted in by the Moorish pirates, took the lead in exciting among the assembled Princes of Christendom, a sense of the necessity for taking some effectual step towards putting an end to a spectacle so disgraceful. The sudden manner in which the Congress of Vienna broke up prevented any definite arrangement from being agreed upon at the moment; but the impression produced upon the public mind had been too deep to be speedily erased, and after the events of 1815 had once again restored tranquility to the continent, a very general expectation prevailed, that the outrages of these barbarian enemies would at last draw down upon their heads some signal and effectual chastisement.

After the conclusion of the general peace in 1814, the States of Tunis and Algiers were induced to increase their establishment of corsair vessels, in consequence of the favourable change which had occurred in regard to freedom of commerce; and the ravages committed by them in the course of that year, were more than sufficient to confirm the British nation, in the opinion already entertained, respecting the necessity of checking them by some just infliction of punishment. Sensible, however that the chief part of any injuries, intended for the guilty Janizaries, would infallibly fall to the share of the comparatively innocent Moorish population, the ministers were willing, if possible, to accomplish their purpose without having recourse to hostilities. Lord Exmouth accordingly was sent to Algiers, and Sir Thomas Maitland to Tunis, early in the season, with a view to procure some amicable arrangement with the respective governments of these states. These distinguished officers obtained without difficulty many important concessions; a great number of slaves were immediately set at liberty ; and, although the demand of entirely abolishing Christian slavery for the future was not immediately complied with, the most solemn assurances were given that an immediate communication should be made on that subject with the Ottoman Porte, (whose authority the Moorish governors were now ambitious of recognising,) and that if the Grand Seignior chose to express his disapprobation, the practice should be put an end to forever. To this the English commanders agreed, and Lord Exmouth immediately returned with his fleet to England, supposing that the object of his voyage had been accomplished. At Algiers, however, the show of submission had been merely assumed for the purposes of the moment, and no sooner were the English squadrons out of sight, than the banditti began to scour the seas as of old : while the Dey sought the means of confirming his power, by opening negociations with the Porte, the Emperor of Morocco, and the Pasha of Egypt. It is even said, that while the English negociator was still at Algiers, the Janizaries held a consultation respecting the propriety of cutting him to pieces while passing to his ship from the Paschalick. The cup of their iniquity, however, was not full till the 31st of May, on which day a massacre of Christians took place at Bona, scarcely exceeded in horror by any that is on record in history. Whether, as it is asserted, by the intelligent Italian traveller Pananti, this scene of cruelty occurred in consequence of positive command from the government of Algiers, or whether it was but the unbidden ebullition of the ferocious passions of the Algerine Janizaries, it is not easy to ascertain ; nor is haps the distinction of much importance. In the neighbourhood of that city, once the scene of a signal triumph over the Moors by the forces of Spain, there are annually assembled, under the protection of the Dey, a great number of small boats from all the coasts of the Mediterranean, for the purposes of coral fishing. On the day above mentioned, some hundreds of the poor fishermen employed in this traffiic were on shore at prayers at noon tide, when of a sudden they were alarmed by the wild cries, with which African soldiers are wont to rush into battle, and, before they could escape to their boats, they found themselves surrounded by a large body of Janizaries and Moors. These bar. barians, animated with a blind and bestial rage, massacred the whole of this unoffending multitude in cold blood, and withdrew in triumph, as if they had, by this cowardly atrocity, vindicated the honour of their country, which they had supposed to be much injured by the late negociations.

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The news of this outrage reached England very shortly after the return of Lord Exmouth, and convinced both him and the government, that the conciliating manner of the preceding negociations, however benevolently intended, had in fact, led only to the most cruel of results. It was immediately determined that Lord Exmouth should return to Algiers, with a formidable armament, and take vengeance for the infraction of the treaty he had so recently concluded. He set sail accordingly with the fo lowing force;—the Queen Charlotte, (his own flag ship) 110 guns; Impregnable, 92 ; Superb, 74; Minden, 74; Albion, 74; Leander, 50; Severn, 40; Glasgow, 40; Granicus, 36; Hebrus, 36; Heron, 18; Mutine, 18; Prometheus, 18; besides several smaller vessels, provided with Congreve rockets and Shrapnel shells. This armament was assembled in safety at Gibraltar by the beginning of August, where they were joined by a Dutch squadron of five ships, under the command of Admiarl Van de Capellen, who were desirous of aiding in the purpose of the expedition, and whose aid was very gladly accepted by the British admiral.

Before proceeding to Algiers, Lord Exmouth dispatched the Prometheus (Captain Dashwood) for the purpose of bringing away, if possible, the English consul and his family. Captain Dashwood found, on his arrival, that the suspicions of the Dey had already been excited, in respect to the destination of the British armament, and that vigorous measures of defence had been adopted by him and his council of regency. It even appeared, that some private intelligence had reached Algiers respecting the particular plan of attack which his lordship had agreed upon; for the point against which he had resolved to bring his principal force, was found to be receiving every additional strength which could in so short a time be thrown around it. The British captain, however, waited immediaely upon the Dey, who informed him, that he was well aware of Lord Exmouth's designs, and well prepared to make a proper defence against whatever armament might be brought to Algiers. Captain Dashwood disguised his knowledge of the truth; and being permitted to visit the consul's house, succeeded in conveying that gentleman's wife and daughter out of the city, in the disguise of naval uniforms. An infant child of the consul was to follow in a basket, but happening to cry out in passing the gate, was discovered and carried back to the city. “The child," said Lord Exmouth, was sent off next morning by the Dey— a solitary instance of humanity, which ought not to pass unrecorded.” The consul himself was already in confinement, nor would the Dey listen to any proposal for releasing him, There could now be no longer any concealment of the admiral's designs, and accordingly, as soon as the winds permitted, the whole combined force broke up from Gibraltar ; they were tossed about for some

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