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firm and stately piles to ruins, and the absence of such awful convulsions of nature as in other places have not only dilapidated edifices, but overwhelmed and swallowed up whole cities.

In my notice of places, I shall observe no regular order, but rove in a desultory way as inclination prompts. The first place to which I shall call your attention, is the town of St. Remy, pleasantly situated in Provence. Besides many recollections of an interesting nature connected with its ancient and modern history, it presents us with two of the most beautiful antiquities to be found in Europe. They consist of a triumphal Arch and Mausoleum. The first of these was erected by the victorious Romans in honour of their general Caius Marius, near the spot where he overcame the combined forces of the Teutones and Ambrones, in the year A. C. 101. History informs us that upon this occasion 200,000 of the allies were slain on the field of battle, and 90,000 made captives; a slaughter, which, judging from the results of modern warfare, seems almost incredible. Notwithstanding the shocking purpose to which gunpowder is principally applied, is not the world under great obligations to its inventor for a discovery which has contributed in no smalll degree to equalize power, curb oppression, and to render such awful instances of destruction as the one just mentioned not only rare but unknown in modern times?

The site of these monuments is rather less than a mile from St. Remy. The Triumphal Arch presents itself first, having upon each of its sides two fluted columns with groups of figures representing captives. It has suffered some dilapidation, several of its statues and ornaments being broken. Enough, however, still remains to excite admiration, and indeed a superficial observer would scarcely note its imperfections.

But the Mausoleum which stands a few rods from the Triumphal Arch, and is considered one of the finest specimens of the kind either in France or Italy, soon draws the attention of the visitor. The height of this superb monument is between fifty and sixty feet. It is in a state of complete preservation, and the just proportions and disposition of its three parts placed one above the other, produces an admirable effect, announcing to moderns the superiority of ancient architecture.

The basis or first division consists of large hewn stones, and supports a square of smaller dimensions surrounded on its four sides by cornice which inclose basso relievo, the figures of which are as large as life. The scenes represented are all martial. On the north side is a combat of cavalry; on the west an engagement of infantry; on the south the field of battle after an action; and on the east, the triumph of the conquerors.

The second division supported by the first, has two arches running through the monument, embellished at each of the four corners by handsome fluted columns with Corinthian capitals. Over these arches there is a fine cornice running round, together with

much well executed ornamental work. The following inscription is still legible on one side.

SEX. L. M. IVLIEI. C. F. PARENTIBVS SVEIS. Dedicated by Sextus, Lucius, and Marcus, sons of Caius Julicius to their parents.

This structure is surmounted by an arched dome or rotunda, composed of ten Corinthian columns resting upon a circular base and supporting a circular entablature. These columns enclose two statues, which some suppose are those of Caius Marius and his colleague Luctatius Catulns.

The architectural beauties of these vestiges are alone sufficient to excite a degree of enthusiasm in the admirers of the arts. But when to these feelings are added those which spring from a veneration for antiquity with all the noble associations which crowd the mind, as it glances over the page of history, the effect is doubly impressive, for

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Must yield its pomp and wait 'till ages are its dower."

St. Remy is also famous as the birth-place of the celebrated astrologer, Nostrodamus, who was besides an eminent physician, born in the first years of the sixteenth century. In 1558 he published his Predictions, with a dedication to Francis I. That king dying the following year of a wound, which he received at a tournament (when the lance of his adversary Montgomery pierced through the golden vizor and entered his eye) the book of our prophet was immediately consulted; and in the 55th quatrain of the first century, this unfortunate event was found in these lines.

Le lion jeune le vieux surmontera

En champ bellique par singulier duel,
Dans cage d'or les yeux lui crevera,

Deux plaies une puis mourrir, mort cruelle.

Such a remarkable prediction gave wings to his fame, and he was shortly afterwards honoured with the visits of many sovereigns from different countries, all eager to look into futurity. But these honours had a short date, for the prophet himself paid the debt of nature not long afterwards, in the year 1566.

When we withdraw our attention from particular objects, and take a survey of what surrounds us, we find a country which both in its landscape and productions affords a striking contrast with our own. The principal features are made up of extensive plains bounded by barren mountains, whilst vineyards and a luxuriant growth of the mulberry, fig and olive, constitute the detail. No fences, hedges or woods obstruct the view. The country-houses

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are usually at a distance from the road side, and collected together in hamlets, a custom which has most probably had its origin from the wars of rapine and cruelty, which have so frequently desolated this beautiful and fruitful country, both in ancient and modern days. On the uncultivated heaths and commons, large flocks are to be seen grazing, guarded by shepherds whose costume and general appearance bring to mind the pastoral descriptions of the poets. They were always accompanied by their dogs-those beautiful and faithful animals, which, besides solacing their solitude, contribute to lessen the labour imposed upon them. Crops of grain are only to be seen growing in low and moist situations. One is particularly struck with the vast number of mulberry trees which shade the country, and are often cultivated in alternate rows with the olive and the vine, the whole affording a succession of crops so different from the staple products of the American soil, that it is difficult for our countrymen to appreciate their value. The ordinary size of the mulberry is about that of a half grown apple-tree to which it bears some resemblance, probably from its being planted in regular rows similar to orchards. The trunk appears large in proportion to the boughs, which are not suffered to expand as inclined by nature, but are so trimmed as to make them bushy, and thereby increase their foliage. Those who make it a particular business to keep the silk worms, purchase the mulberry leaves for their support from the neighbouring farmers at a certain price for each tree. The raw silk finds a ready market in the nearest manufacturing towns.

As every thing relative to the history of this beautiful and important article of dress is interesting, I shall perhaps be excused for devoting a few lines to the subject.

In the management of silk worms, the eggs of these insects are hatched in boxes, from whence they are removed to hurdle shelves constructed for their residence. The worm soon undergoes several changes in shape and colour, and at last ends its metamorphosis by retiring into its silken cell which it manufactures with a skill and beauty truly admirable. Having remained in its ball or cone for two or three weeks, it pierces the smallest end, foreing its way out under the new form of a butterfly. Few however are reserved for so long a life, as the moisture which escapes from the insect soon after its last transformation, is found to soil and injure the silk. To prevent this evil the cones are exposed to a sufficient degree of heat to destroy the life of the fly. Enough are however always preserved to keep up the stock, and as each will lay 5 or 600 eggs, a small number is sufficient for this purpose.

The worms are supplied with fresh leaves every day, and great care is taken to keep their apartments clean, and well aired, as their health, growth and welfare depend greatly upon these precautions. The leaves intended for the future support of these in

VOL. II. NO, 2.


sects are gathered from the trees in dry weather, and retain their freshness a long time by being well protected from moisture.

Silk, though well known, was not manufactured in Europe before the decline of the Roman empire, and the luxurious Romans were indebted for this very costly article, to the caravan merchants who traded with the Chinese, by traversing the long and dangerous paths and defiles which led over the deserts and mountains of Arabia. During the reign of Justinian, the insects which produce it were first introduced into the west. Two Persian monks who had found their way to the Chinese empire as missionaries, suffered their religious zeal to be relaxed by cupidity, and upon a promise of a high reward from that emperor, succeeded in transporting the eggs of the insect from China to the west. The monks eluded the penetrating vigilance of the Chinese, by concealing the eggs in hollow bamboos. Such was at that time the high estimation in which this strange people held the management of silk worms that they considered the business of nursing them an occupation superior to all others and proper for their queens.

The olive tree which produces such an agreeable condiment is a small and bushy evergreen. The fruit, when ripe, is black, but those that are pickled are gathered green, and have their bitterness extracted by an alkaline solution in which they are steeped.

In my next letter you will perhaps have some account of the interesting antiquities of Nismes, a place which abounds with some of the noblest specimens of art. In the meantime recommending myself to your kind preposessions, I remain,


ART. VIII.-History of Europe, from the Treaty of Paris in 1815. Continued from page 493.

CHAP. II.-ENGLAND. Distresses of the Country-Riots in the Counties of Suffolk, Cambridge, and Stafford.-Meetings at Spafields, and disturbanoes in the Metropolis.-Orator Hunt.--Marriage of the Princess Charlotte of Wales and Prince Leopold of Saxe Cobourg Saalfield.---Death of Mr. Sheridan.

In the speech at the commencement of the session of Parliament, the regent congratulated himself and the two Houses on the prosperous condition of the nation. In regard to a very great part of the nation, however, it was early suspected, and it soon became quite evident, that these congratulations were at the best somewhat premature. To so great an extent indeed did this impression gain ground, that both within Parliament and without it a very considerable share of the public attention was ere long directed to the causes out of which the acknowledged distresses of the agricultural part of the nation had arisen, and to the remedies,

by which, in the opinion of various speculators, they might most probably be cured.

The extent of these distresses was exhibited to the House in such an alarming point of view, that no attempt was made to infuse the spirit of party zeal into the discussion of the subject. The business of the committee which was appointed was gone about in the calm manner of a merely scientific society, all men appearing to bring to the investigation minds influenced by no motives except those of the purest and most honourable nature; nor is it to be doubted that this circumstance alone was of considerable efficacy in soothing the spirits of those whose sufferings might have been, not unnaturally, expected to render them irritable.

These distresses although they were brought much too early under the consideration of parliament, were not in fact greater than the distresses of other parts of the empire wherein agricul ture had never formed the chief object of attention-among the silk manufacturers, for instance in Spitalfields, and the iron and coal workers of Staffordshire and Wales. The distress was a very general one; and wherever it appeared, among labourers of the ground or manufacturers, it is certain that it had originated in the operation of the same general causes. These causes, however their minutiæ might be disputed, bore all of them no indistinct reference to the highly artificial state wherein the empire and all its concerns had been placed by the unexampled length and pertinacity of the war in which it had been engaged. The sufferings of the agricultural and commercial classes were connected with each other in their origin, and they acted reciprocally so as to increase each other in the sequel. The more immediate causes of all may be considered as having arisen from changes thus produced in the exports, the imports, and the home demands of commerce, in consequence of the alteration which took place in the system of the empire, and of the continental nations, by reason of the downfal of the power of France.

During the continuance of the last war, many things had conspired to stimulate to the highest extent the exertions of every class of the people of England. Cut off by the decrees of Buonaparte from direct intercourse with some of the richest countries in Europe, the policy which England had adopted in revenge of this exclusion, had greatly increased the action of those many circumstances which naturally tended towards rendering her the great or rather sole entrepot of the commerce of the world. In her the whole of that colonial trade which had formerly been sufficient to enrich, not her alone, but France and Holland also, had now centered. The inventive zeal of her manufacturers had gone on from year to year augmenting and improving branches of industry, in which even before, she had been without a rival. The increase of manufacturers had been attended with a perpetual increase in the demand for agricultural produce, and the events of

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