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arrows for the musket; and even their dwellings differ very little from those of the Portuguese settlers. The most formidable of all the native Indians for treachery, valour, and ferocity, are the Botocudos; who rove among the wilds and interminable forests on the banks of the Rio Doce, up to its source in the Capitania of Minas Geraes. Their hostilities with the Portuguese have been obstinate and suspended only by some occasional and treacherous truce. As they are believed to kill and to devour all those of their enemies who fall into their hands, the wars have, of course, been conducted on the principle of absolute extermination; and every imaaginable cruelty, without regard to age or sex, has been exercised on both sides. It ought never to be forgotten, however, in extenuation of these savages, that the original ill usage was on the part of the invaders: for, whether we look at the shores of Africa, America, or the West India islands, we shall find the infernal thirst of gold extinguishing every feeling of humanity on the part of the European settlers, immense countries laid waste, and the native inhabitants butchered, or reduced to slavery, or driven back into the wilds and fastnesses and forests of the interior, while the scites of their once populous habitations exhibit the picture of frightful solitude and desolation. Very rarely, indeed, have the principles of humanity and justice been introduced without humanizing the parties on whom their benign influence is shed; and this fact is strikingly verified in the instance of these very Indians, the Botocudos. A tribe of them resides on the Rio Grande de Belmonte, who concluded a peace a few years ago with the governor, Conde dos Arcos, in the Capitania of Bahia; and in consequence of his equity and moderation, the inhabitants of the district are living with them on the most confidential and advantageous terms.

Between the mountains of Minas Geraes and the east coast are extensive wilds, in which rove many of these savage hordes: but roads are constructing along the rivers, and in different directions, to facilitate the carriage of the products of the Minas to the chief cities and the sea. Roads also, such as they are, have been opened on the Mucuri, the Belmonte, the Ilheos, the Espirito Santo, &c., through the forests to Minas; and surely the necessity of securing a safe conveyance of commodities must suggest the obvious course of civilizing and attaching the hostile tribes of Indians. Indeed the common Portuguese, themselves, along the coast, are almost as ignorant of the state of the rest of the world as the sa vages; which is here rationally ascribed to the pernicious system of entire exclusion from foreign intercourse, formerly pursued by Portugal with regard to Brazil. A stranger here is considered as a wonder, or as something only half human. Medicine, as a science, and surgery, are absolutely unknown; and in the hot climate of Brazil the inhabitants are subject to various cutaneous diseases, as well as obstinate fevers, which are not in themselves dangerous, but which here become fatal from improper treatment.

Schools, likewise, are wholly wanting: arrogant ecclesiastics, too indolent or too prejudiced to communicate education, rather encouraging superstition than dispelling it, and impeding the progress of intelligence instead of promoting it.

Of the Botocudos so much had been said that Prince Maximilian boldly resolved to become acquainted with them by residing in their neighbourhood for two or three months. He had gratified his curiosity before in a similar manner with other tribes: but the first sight of these savages astonished the party beyond expression, for they had never seen such strange and ugly beings. The more effectually to disfigure their countenances, they wear large pieces of wood, four or five inches long, in their lower lips and in their ears: the lip is thus made to project very much; and the ears of some of them hang like large wings down to their shoulders;' while their brown bodies are covered with dirt. The small-pox is extremely fatal to the Indians: several of the Botocudos were scarred and seamed with that frightful disease, introduced into these parts by the Europeans; and many tribes have been wholly exterminated by it. They go entirely naked, men and women: but some of them paint their dark brown skins, partially or entirely, with bright red or black, as taste and fashion vary. All these tribes, however, scorn any thing like dress. Father Ignacio, a worthy old priest, who resides at Trancozo, a town near Porto Seguro, to the south of the Rio de Belmonte, assured the travellers that some of the Patachos Indians frequently came to barter for provisions, who were always naked; and that, when he has tied a handkerchief round the waist of the women, they have always instantly pulled it off again.

These Botocudos, like country-gentlemen of large estates in England, are very tenacious of game. It seems that one of their leaders, Captain June as he is called, had been tresspassing on the grounds of another chieftain, Jerapack, and killed some wild swine; all sporting-gentlemen must feel this to be an unpardonable insult, and so it was considered by the party aggrieved in this instance. A challenge was accordingly sent, and accepted; and the following account of the combat, though not given with the slang of the Fancy among us, may amuse those of our readers who like to see how these affairs are settled on the Rio Grande de Belmonte:

When we landed on the opposite bank, we found all the savages standing close together, and formed a half circle about them. The combat was just beginning. First, the warriors of both parties uttered short rough tones of defiance to each other, walked sullenly round one another like angry dogs, at the same time making ready their poles. Captain Jeparack then came forward, walked about between the men, looked gloomily and directly before him, with wide staring eyes, and sung, with a tremulous voice, a long song, which probably described the affront that he had re

ceived. In this manner the adverse parties became more and more inflamed: suddenly two of them advanced, and pushed one another with the arm on the breast, so that they staggered back, and then began to ply their poles. One first struck with all his might at the other, regardless where the blow fell; his antagonist bore the first attack seriously and calmly, without changing countenance; he then took his turn, and thus they belaboured each other with severe blows, the marks of which long remained visible in the large wheals on their naked bodies. As there were on the poles many short stumps of branches which had been cut off, the effect of the blows were not always confined to bruises, but the blood flowed from the heads of many of the combatants. When two of them had thus thrashed each other handsomely, two more came forward; and several pair were often seen engaged at once; but they never laid hands on one another. When these combats had continued for some time, they again walked about with a serious look, uttering tones of defiance, till heroic enthusiasm again seized them, and set their poles in motion.

Meanwhile, the women also fought valiantly; amidst continual weeping and howling, they seized each other by the hair, struck with their fists, scratched with their nails, tore the plugs of wood out of each other's ears and lips, and scattered them on the field of battle as trophies. If one threw her adversary down, a third, who stood behind, seized her by the legs, and threw her down likewise, and then they pulled each other about on the ground. The men did not degrade themselves so far as to strike the women of the opposite party; but only pushed them with the ends of their poles, or kicked them on the side, so that they rolled over and over. The lamentations and howlings of the women and children likewise resounded from the neighbouring huts, and heightened the effect of this most singular scene.'

The combat lasted about an hour; when both parties being exhausted, but neither being disposed to make peace, it was at length effected by the mediation of the travellers. The combatants, covered with gashes and glory, immediately afterward sat or lay down with their open bleeding wounds, and ate as heartily of some Mandisca flour which the commandant gave them as if nothing had happened.

All the sugar-refineries, factories, &c. on the coast of Brazil are wrought by negro-slaves; and the author observed that these wretched beings were fond of any thing which brought to remembrance their lost and beloved country, by retaining its customs as far as it was in their power. For instance, they have all the musical instruments mentioned by travellers in Africa, among which the drum holds a distinguished place; and the drum of the poor Brazilian slave often breaks upon the ear through the stillness of evening. Wherever many negroes live together on a Fazenda, they celebrate their festivals; painting, dressing, and performing

their national dances, as in their native country. The government of Rio de Janeiro likewise brought over several Chinese, with the view of cultivating the tea-plant; and Prince Maximilian fell in with some of them in his journey from Rio Doce to Caravellas, where they are employed as day labourers: but they are too indolent to perform any other than very light work. These poor creatures, too, live together, and cherish the memory of their country by preserving its customs and festivals. The author paid a visit to a family of them in a miserable reed-hut, the interior of which presented a striking contrast with its external appearance. Every thing was clean and neat: their beds had white curtains, prettily festooned, and fastened up on the sides with handsome brass hooks: they had a fine rush mat on which they slept, and a small round pillow for the head: they ate their rice in the Chinese manner, with two small sticks: in broken Portuguese they talked about their dear native country; and, for the inspection of the travellers, they opened their trunks, in which they had carefully preserved some Chinese porcelain, and a few fans which they had brought with them for sale.

The present volume carries us no farther than Belmonte: but we hope soon to receive, in a continuation of the work, an invitation from this scientific and enterprizing traveller to accompany him in his journey northward, where he will add to the collection of natural history which he has already acquired at the expense of such great personal fatigue and peril. The book merits and requires a better set of plates; and some drawings from the new specimens collected in natural history would be extremely acceptable. We have at present, besides the map, only six mezzotinto engravings, representing Puris in their huts, an excursion up a branch of the Rio Doce, the opening of the new road along the Mucuri, Patachos of the Rio de Prado, a family of Botocudos on a journey, and the single combats of those people: but the German edition, is very handsome, and accompanied by large and fine plates and maps.

ART. II-Robinson Crusoeus. Latine scripsit F. J. Goffaux, Humaniorum Litterarum Professor in Lycao Imperiali. Editio Nova, cui accedunt Annotationes. 12mo. 5s. Boards. Wilson, 1820.*

WE consider this as a very good idea. Boys of some imagination, and of some attainments in Latin, may possibly be attracted to read this work as a voluntary task; and, if so, we think that they will find it converted into a pleasure. If we speak for our

This book has lately been republished by Mr. James Maxwell, Philadelphia. It has been introduced into several of our schools, where it is found to be very useful. The price, we have just room to add, is 50 cents.

selves, we can say that it has revived all our early fondness for one of the most delightful of boyish books; and we sit down with thankfulness to acknowledge the gratification which this German translator of it has conferred on us,

We are far, however, from allowing that, in the arrangement of his abridged Robinson Crusoe, he has preserved all the charm of the original story; on the contrary, we object to several alterations, and particularly to the omission of the wreck, from which Robinson derived so many comforts in his solitary state: but, on the whole, the Latin is still very entertaining, and grows in interest as we advance.

It is late indeed to panegyrise Robinson Crusoe: but we must take this opportunity of maintaining, with all our might, that no subsequent writer has succeeded so well in making the imagination the high road to virtuous feeling, and sensible reflection, as De Foe did in his Robinson Crusoe. The rational piety of this excellent narration; its warm, simple, and beautiful reference of all the events of life to a gracious and over-ruling Providence; patience under misfortunes; the whole circle of such Christian duties as could be practised in so contracted a sphere;—all this, and how much more!-where is it all combined with such entertainment, with such universally interesting details? This charming tale has awakened, we have no doubt, the dormant fancy of thousands; and who that reflects on the share that fancy takes, in stirring up the wonders of the human mind, can refuse highly to appreciate the works that contribute, so largely and so safely, to the development of that preliminary power?

The mention of De Foe, honoured as his name is in the annals of fictitious lore, suggests a question which we should be glad to have satisfactorily answered, as to the authenticity of the first volume of Robinson Crusoe. It has been said, we hear in print, and has often we know been repeated in literary conversation, that De Foe was not the author of the first and best volume of this interesting work: but that Harley wrote it during his confinement in the Tower. Who can satisfy our natural curiosity on this head?

The translation of this history into Latin must have been a work of very considerable difficulty; executed, as it is, in a highly creditable manner, of which our classical readers shall be enabled to judge by a few specimens. We shall be very glad if (by any recommendation from us) we not only increase the popularity of this book among English scholars, but encourage them to attempt what we think might be very useful to students in Latin:-to take advantage, we mean, of the interest which the best English novels naturally excite even in the most dense boys; and, by turning some of them, or parts of them, into Latin, to multiply the chances of tempting the unwilling into unconscious scholarship. It is easy to suggest tales of a proper kind:-"Rasselas,” "The Vicar of

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