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Athanase Coquerel, born 1820, died 1876, the well-known champion of Liberal ideas in the French Protestant Church, was suspended from his pastoral functions by the Consistory of Paris, on account of his review of M. Renan's Vie de Jésus in 1864. FerdinandEdouard Buisson, a Liberal Protestant, originally a professor at Lausanne, was raised to the important functions of Director of Primary Instruction by M. Ferry in 1879.
He was denounced by Bishop Dupanloup, in the National Assembly of 1871, as the author of certain Liberal pamphlets on the dangers connected with Scripture-teaching in schools, and, for the time, lost his employment under the Ministry of Education.
7. P. 56. — This is one of the passages which rouses M. Renan's wonder. Voilà la grande différence,' he writes, “entre l'éducation catholique et l'éducation protestante. Ceux qui comme moi ont reçu une éducation catholique en ont gardé de profonds vestiges. Mais ces vestiges ne sont pas des dogmes, ce sont des rêves. Une fois ce grand rideau de drap d’or, bariolé de soie, d'indienne et de calicot, par lequel le catholicisme nous masque la vue du monde, une fois, dis-je ce rideau déchiré, on voit l'univers en sa splendeur infinie, la nature en sa haute et pleine majesté. Le protestant le plus libre garde souvent quelque chose de triste, un fond
d'austérité intellectuelle analogue au pessimisme slave.' - (Journal des Débats, September 30, 1884.)
One is reminded of Mr. Morley's criticism of Emerson. Emerson, he points out, has almost nothing to say of death, and little to say of that horrid burden and inpediment on the soul which the churches call sin, and which, by whatever name we call it, is a very real catastrophe in the moral nature of man; - the courses of nature, and the prodigious injustices of man in society affect him with neither horror nor awe. He will see no monster if he can help it.'
Here, then, we have the eternal difference between the two orders of temperament - the men whose overflowing energy forbids them to realise the ever-recurring defeat of the human spirit at the hands of circumstance, like Renan and Emerson, and the men for whom 'horror and awe' are interwoven with experience, like Amiel.
8. P. 102. — Mably, the Abbé Mably, 1709– 85, one of the precursors of the Revolution, the professor of a cultivated and classical communism based on a study of antiquity, which Babeuf, and others like him, in the following generation, translated into practical experiment. 'Caius Gracchus' Babeuf, born 1764, and guillotined in 1797 for a conspiracy against the Directory, is sometimes called the first French Socialist. Perhaps Socialist doctrines, properly so called, may be said to make their first entry into the region of popular debate and practical agitation with his Manifeste des Égaux, issued April 1796.
9. P. 109. — ““Persifflez les pharisaïsmes, mais parlez droit aux honnêtes gens” me dit Amiel, avec une certaine aigreur. Mon Dieu, que les honnêtes gens sont souvent exposés a être des pharisiens sans le savoir !' - (M. Renan's article, already quoted.)
10. P. 111. — Polyeucte, Act V. Scene v. ‘Mon époux en mourant m'a laissé ses lumières; Son sang dont tes bourreaux viennent de me couvrir M'a dessillé les yeux et me les vient d'ouvrir Je vois, je sais, crois
11. P. 121. — A Synod of the Reformed Churches of France was then occupied in determining the constituent conditions of Protestant belief.
12. P. 129. — Louise Siefert, a modern French poetess, died 1879. In addition to Les Stoïques, she published L'Année Républicaine, Paris, 1869, and other works.
13. P. 134. --'We all believe in duty,' says M. Renan, “and in the triumph of righteousness;' but it is possible notwithstanding, 'que tout le contraire soit vrai - et que le monde ne soit qu'une amusante féerie dont aucun dieu ne se soucie. Il faut donc nous arranger de manière à ceque, dans le cas où le seconde hypothèse serait la vraie, nous n'ayons pas été trop dupés.
This strain of remark, which is developed at considerable length, is meant as a criticism of Amiel's want of sensitiveness to the irony of things. But in reality, as the passage in the text shows, M. Renan is only expressing a feeling with which Amiel was just as familiar as his critic. Only he is delivered from his last doubt of all by his habitual seriousness; by that sense of 'horror and awe' which M. Renan puts away from him. Conscience saves him from the sorceries of Maïa.'
14. P. 160.– Ernest Havet, born 1813, a distinguished French scholar and professor. He became Professor of Latin Oratory at the Collège de France in 1855, and a Member of the Institute in January 1880. His admirable edition of the Pensées de Pascal is well known. Le Christianisme et ses Origines, an important book, in four volumes, was developed from a series of articles in the Revue des deux Mondes, and the Revue Contemporaine.
15. P. 171. — Amiel had just received at the hands of his doctor the medical verdict, which was his arrêt de mort.
16. P. 191. - Compare this paragraph from the Pensées of a new writer, M. Joseph Roux,
a country curé, living in a remote part of the Bas Limousin, whose thoughts have been edited and published this year by M. Paul Mariéton (Paris: Alphonse Lemerre)
• Le verbe ne souffre et ne connait que la volonté qui le dompte, et n'emporte loin sans péril que l'in. telligence qui lui ménage avec empire l'éperon et le frein.'
17. P. 207. - Ximénès Doudan, born in 1800, died 1872, the brilliant friend and tutor of the De Broglie family, whose conversation was so much sought after in life, and whose letters have been so eagerly read in France since his death. Compare M. Scherer's two articles on Doudan's Lettres and Pensées in his last published volume of essays.
18. P. 235. — Compare La Bruyère —
Entre toutes les differentes expressions qui peuvent rendre une seule de nos pensées il n'y en a qu'une qui soit la bonne; on ne la rencontre pas toujours en parlant ou en écrivant: il est vray néan. moins qu'elle existe, que tout ce qui ne l'est point est foible, et ne satisfait point un homme d'esprit qui veut se faire entendre.'
19. P. 243. — Amiel's expression is Les Parnassiens, an old name revived, which nowadays describes the younger school of French poetry represented by such names as Théophile Gautier, Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Bauville, and Baudelaire. The modern use