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several miscellaneous pieces


servance in the laying up and preserving of the holý vessels; the solemn removing thereof; the vigilant attendance thereon; and the provident defence of the same, which all ages have in some degree imitated—is now so forgotten, and cast away, in this superfine age by those of the Family, by the Anabaptist, Brownist, and other sectaries, as all cost and care bestowed and had of the church, wherein God is to be observed and worshipped, is accounted a kind of popery, and as proceeding from an idolatrous disposition : insomuch as time would soon bring to pass (if it were not resisted) that God would be turned out of churches into barns, and thence again into the fields and mountains, and under the hedges; and the offices of the ministry, robbed of all dignity and respect, be as contemptible as these places; all order, discipline, and church-government left to newness of opinion, and men's fancies: yea, and soon after as many kinds of religions would spring up, as there are parish-churches within England, every contentious and ignorant person clothing his fancy with the Spirit of God, and his imagination with the gift of revelation ; insomuch as when the truth, which is but one, shall appear to the simple multitude no less variable than contrary to itself, the faith of men will soon after die away by degrees, and all religion be held in scorn and contempt." (II. v. 1.)

“ The design of this production (adds Granger) was equal to the greatness of his mind, and it's execution to the strength of his parts and the variety of his learning. His stile is pure, nervous, and majestic; and much better suited to the dignity of history, than that of Lord Bacon in his . History of Henry VII.' Ralegh seems to have written for posterity; Bacon, for the reign of James I. To some of his friends, who were deploring his confinement, he calmly observed, “ The world itself is but a large prison, out of which some are daily selected for execution.”

It's conclusion (V. vi. 12.) is highly commended by Bishop Warburton in a letter to Birch: “By this, which we have already set down, is seen the beginning and the end of the three first monarchies of the world, whereof the founders and erectors thought that they could never have ended. That of Rome, which made the fourth, was also at this time almost at the highest.


prose, * chiefly political, and some poems. These, originally printed at different times and in various forms, were published collectively by Dr. Birch, in two volumes 8vo., in the year 1751. They are now become scarce. They contain,” says Sir Egerton Brydges, “a rich fund of political wisdom, applicable beyond the great occasions which gave birth to them, expanded by general axioms, and filled with the germs of that noble science of political economy, which the latter half of the eighteenth century cultivated with such success.” One of the Tracts, entitled, “The Cabinet Council,' had the honour to be first published

We have left it flourishing in the middle of the field; having rooted up, or cut down, all that kept it from the eye

and admiration of the world. But, after some continuance, it shall begin to lose the beauty it had ; the storms of ambition shall beat her great boughs, and branches, one against another; her leaves shall fall off, her limbs wither, and a rabble of barbarous nations enter the field and cut her down."

“ It is death alone, that can suddenly make man to know himself. He tells the proud and confident, that they are but abjects, and humbles them at the instant; makes them cry, complain, and repent; yea, even to hate their fore-passed happiness. He takes the account of the rich, and proves him a beggar, a naked beggar, which hath interest in nothing, but in the gravel that fills his mouth. He holds a glass before the eyes of the most beautiful, and makes them see therein their deformity and rottenness; and they acknowledge it. O eloquent, just, and mighty Death! whom none could advise, thou hast persuaded : what none hath dared, thou hast done: and whom all the world hath flattered, thou only hast cast out of the world, and despised; thou hast drawn together all the far-stretched greatness, all the pride, cruelty, and ambition of man, and covered it all over with these two narrow words, Hic jacet.

* Of these, perhaps, his . Instructions to his Son and to Posterity' deserve a distinct specification.

by Milton* in 8vo., 1668. Of all of them, as well as of his MS. Remains, scattered in various public libraries, Mr. Cayley has given an accurate list.

But, although it was generally acknowledged in the following reign that Ralegh’s death was an act of cruel and cowardly policy in James I., his second and only surviving son, Carew Ralegh, was compelled by that monarch to confirm the title of his father's valuable estate at Sherborne to Sir John Digby, who had been created Earl of Bristol. † And upon that condition alone would Charles restore Mr. Ralegh in blood; alleging, that he had promised the manor of Sherborne to Digby, when he was Prince of Wales, and that now he was King, he was bound to confirm it."

* With this prefatory address : “ Having had the MS. of this Treatise, written by Sir Walter Ralegh, many years in my hands, and finding it lately by chance among other books and papers, upon reading thereof I thought it a kind of injury to withhold longer the work of so eminent an author from the public: it being both answerable in stile to other works of his already extant, as far as the subject will permit, and given me for a true copy by a learned man at his death, who had collected several such pieces. John Milton."

+ The estate had been originally bestowed upon him by James I., at the request of the Prince after the disgrace of Somerset.


From his Cabinet Council,' first published by Milton

in 1658,


Observations intrinsically concerning every Public

State in points of Justice, Treasure, and War.

• The first concern matter intrinsic; the second touch matter extrinsic. Matters intrinsic are three :

the administration of justice, the managing of the • treasure, the disposing of things appertaining to war.

Matters extrinsic are, also, three: the skill how to · deal with neighbours, the diligence to vent their

designs, the way how to win so much confidence with some of them, as to be made partakers of whatsoever they mean to enterprise.

Touching Administration of Justice. • The good and direct administration of justice is, in all places, a principal part of government: for seldom or never shall we see any people discontented and desirous of alteration, where justice is equally administered without respect of persons; and in every state this consideration is required, but most of all in countries that do front upon other princes, or were lately conquered. Hereunto the prince's vigilancy, and the magistrate's uprightness, are especially required : for oftentimes the prince is deceived, and the magistrates corrupted. It behoveth, also, the prince to maintain the judges and ministers of justice in their

2 c


reputation, and yet to have a vigilant eye upon their proceedings; and the rather, if their authority do include equity, and from their censure be no appeal And if their office be during life, and they are men born and dwelling in the same country, all these things are duly to be considered of the prince: for as to call the judges into question is, as it were, to disgrace the judicial seat; so, to wink at their corruptions, were matter of just discontent to the subject, In this case, therefore, the prince cannot do more than by his wisdom to make choice of good men; and being chosen, to hold them in good reputation, so as the ordinary course of justice may proceed: for otherwise great disorder, contempt, and general confusion will ensue thereof. Secondly, he is to keep his eye open upon their proceeding; and, lastly, to reserve unto himself a supreme power of appellation.

Touching the Treasure. • The want of money is in all states very perilous, and most of all, in those which are of least strength, and do confine upon nations with whom they have commonly war, or unassured peace; but most perilous of all to those governments, which are remote from the prince, or place, where they are to be relieved.

• The means to levy treasure are four. First, the customs and impositions upon all sorts of merchandise and traffic is to be looked unto, and advanced. Secondly, the excessive exacting of usury must be suppressed. Thirdly, all superfluous charges and expenses are to be taken away. Lastly, the doings and accounts of ministers are severally to be examined.

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