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THE GATHERER,

Little things have their value."

Cholera Morbus.-The rapid advance of the cholera morbus, which comes from the extremity of India, and the certain fact, that it always follows the migration of large bodies of men, such as the march of armies and caravans, should warn Western Enrope of the near invasion of this dreadful Scourge. Two Russian divisions, which have advanced to the frontiers of Poland, come from the governments of Koursk and Cherson, where this epidemic rages. M. Moreau de Jonnès, on the 22d November, read be fore the Academy of Sciences at Paris a report of considerable interest, respecting this new species of plague. "Will the cold," asks M. Moreau de Jonnès, "extinguish the cholera morbus this year? But has cold done so during the fifteen years it has ravaged Asia? Did it even at Orenbourg, under a latitude more northern than Paris? Besides, we forget too easily the memora ble plague which desolated Wallachia and Russia from 1769 to 1771. It was imported into Moscow during the autumn, and continued its fearful career during three very severe winters. Will this scourge reach Poland, Germany, and, at last, France? We dare not dwell on these fearful thoughts: we shudder when we remember that the cholera morbus, engendered in India, has already stretched to the north, far beyond the latitude of Paris and the principal states of Europe and nothing has stopped its progress." M. Moreau de Jonnès adds also some new facts. Already has this pestilent disease thrice advanced towards Europe by different routes. Imported in the year 1819 from Bengal into the Isles of France and Bourbon, it threatened to arrive on our shores by some of the many ships belonging to France or England. Precaution taken at the Cape of Good Hope prevented this misfortune. In 1821 the communication between Bombay and the ports in the Gulf of Arabia, brought the cholera morbus to Bassora: it ascended the Euphrates, crossed Mesopotamia, and following step by step the commercial communications, it arrived in Syria. There it yielded to the cold during the winter, but re-appeared in the spring with redoubled force, and during three years decimated the population. It spread into most of the cities situated on the Mediterranean. In the spring of 1825 it appeared at Bukara, and continued its ravages towards Moscow, where it penetrated on the 28th of September last. M Moreau de Jonnès is of opinion that in the provinces of the Russian empire which lie between 45 deg. and 57 deg., the cold of winter will stop the progress of the contagion; but from experience, it is probable that it will re-appear in the spring with all its activity and violence; and he fears its descent into the

milder climates of Europe, where its ravages will be more terrible, as the popula tion is more dense, and communications more rapid and more numerous.

Home-No marvel that poets have chosen home and the native land, as gratefub themes of song. In themselves, the words are full of melody; in their associations they form exquisite music. It is a blessed thing to have a haven of rest where love lights its beacon and keeps its vigils to greet the returning wanderer, weary of a cheerless pilgrimage by flood or field. God help those for whom every country wears a foreign aspect-who avert their steps from the dwelling of their fathers, banished by the clouds of discord, or the rank weeds of desolation!

Chinese Justice.-In order to celebrate weddings in China, they used to fix a day on which all the young men and girls who wished to marry repaired to a place des tined for that purpose. The young men gave a statement of their wealth; after which they were divided into three classes

the rich, the middling, and the poor.. The girls were also divided into three classes -the fine, the tolerable, and the ugly ones. Then the fine girls were given to the rich young men, who paid for them; the tolerable ones to the second class of young men, who did not pay; and the ugly ones to the poor, who had with them the money paid: by the rich.

Area of Europe.-The surface of the different European states in geographic square miles, is as follows:-Russia, 375,174; Austria, 12,153 1-2; France, 10,086; Great Britain, 5,535; Prussiay 5,040; the Netherlands (Belgium) 1,196's Sweden, 7,935 1-2; Norway, 5,798; Denmark, 1,019 3-4; Poland, 2,293; Spain, 8,446; Portugal, 1,722; Two Sicilies, 1,987; Sardinia, 1,363; the Pope's Territory, 811; Tuscany, 395 9-25ths; Switzerland, 696 1-3; European Turkey, 10,000; Bavaria, 1,383; Saxony, 348; Hanover, 695; Wurtemburg, 359; Baden, 276; Hesse Darmstadt, 185; Hesse Cas sel, 208.

State of Medicine in Turkey.-Zagori, a district not far from Ioanina, is famous throughout the Levant for its breed of itinėrant quacks. The male population con sists solely of M. D.'s; Zagoriot and doctor being synonymes; and indeed, the medical profession becomes, in their hands, so lucrative, as entirely to supersede the necessity of any other. An idea of their wealth may be formed from their houses, which are well built, spacious, and the best furnished in Turkey. When at home, they live like gentlemen at large. It may not prove uninteresting to those who wish to ascertain the state of medicine in Turkey,

to hear some particulars relative to the education and qualification requisite to obtain a degree at this singular university. The first thing taught to the young men is the professional language; a dissonant jargon composed purposely to carry on their business, hold cousultations, &c. without being understood by any being in existence but themselves. They are then taught reading sufficiently to decipher the pages of their manuscript, containing a selection of deceptive formulæ, for all possible diseases incident to human nature. When a candidate has given before the elders proofs of his proficiency in these attainments, they declare him to be dignus entrare in docto nostro copore; and he then prepares to leave Zagori. The Zagoriots generally travel about Turkey in small bands, composed of six or eight different individuals, each of whom has a separate part to perform, like strolling players. One is the sig. nor dottore. He never enters a town but mounted on a gaudy-comparisoned horse, dressed in long robes, with a round hat and neokcloth; never opening his month but ex cathedra, his movements are performed with due professional gravity, and he is at all times attended by his satellites. One is the apothecary; the second the dragoman; for it is the doctor's privilege not to comprehend a syllable of any other language but the Zagorio; a third is the herald, who, endued with a surprising volubility of tongue, announces through the streets and in the public squares, the arrival of the incomparable doctor; enumerates the won derful cures he has performed; and entreats the people to avail themselves of this providential opportunity: for, not only does he possess secrets for the cure of actual diseases, but of insuring against their future attacks. He possesses the happy talent too of ingravidating the barren, and leaves it to their choice to have male or female, &c. &c. He is skilled in the performance of operations for the stone, cataracts, her nia, dislocations, &c. Two others, who pass under the denomination of servants, employ their time in going from house to house in quest of patients; and as, from their menial employment, they are thought to be disinterested, credit is more easily given to their word. Thus they journey from town to town, hardly ever remaining more than a fortnight in any place. After a tour of five or six years, they return for a while to their families, and divide in equal shares the gains of their charlatanism. On a second journey, they all change parts, in order to escape detection. The dottore yields his dignity to the servant, and he does the same office he was wont to receive; the dragoman becomes herald, the herald apothecary, &c.

Snakes.-M. Duverney, one of the professors of the Strasburg Academy, lately read to the French Academy a very curious paper on the anatomical distinctions

between venomous and non-venomous snakes; in which he showed that salivary and lachrymal had been frequently mistaken for venomous glands; and that much of the mortal character of venomous snakes depended upon the position of the fangs.

The Sabbath.-Putting a future state wholly out of the question, there is nothing in the social system of more value to the body of the people, than a due observance of this day. Neither body nor mind can bear continual toil, and both require a seventh day of rest to keep them in health and vigor: the abolition of it would considerably reduce the demand for labor, and a vast portion of the working classes would have to labor seven days instead of six for the wages they now receive: to this must be added the loss these classes would sustain, in respect of cleanliness, intercourse with friends, and the means of instruction. Looking beyond its religious objects, the Sabbath may be regarded as a merciful concession to human nature, an invaluable boon to the poor-a divine interposition to give that protection to the health, comforts, and privileges of the mass of mankind, which, perhaps, nothing else could bestow. The workman who establishes the precedent for making it a day of labor, attacks the best temporal interests of himself and his brethren.

Titian.-The anecdote of Charles's having twice picked up this great artist's pencil, and presented it to him, saying, To wait on Titian was service for an emperor," is well known; but we do not remember to have met with the following: "Titian had painted the portrait of Charles several times, but now being called to the court of that prince, he for the last time painted his portrait, just as it then appeared in the latter part of his life; and this picture also much pleased the renowned emperor. Certain it is, that the very first portrait Titian drew of him so struck him with admiration, that he would never after sit to any other artist; and for every portrait Titian took of him he gave him a thousand crowns in gold. Titian in all painted three portraits of the emperor; and when he last sat to him, at the conclusion of the picture, Charles said with emphasis,—' This the third time I have triumphed over death.'"

Greek Women. Their feet and ankles, which, by the by, rather correspond to Grecian than to modern ideas of beauty, are completely hid by the folds of trousers, that are tied like a purse just below the knee. This gives a woman, when walking, completely the appearance of a featheredpaw pigeon. This is the more striking, as Grecian coquettes affect as much as possible to imitate the walk of a bird. "You walk like a goose,' ," "like a duck," however impertinent in the ear of an English belle, are the most flattering compliments that can be whispered in those of a Greek one.

OF THE

ENGLISH MAGAZINES.

THIRD SERIES.]

BOSTON, MARCH 15, 1831. [VOL. 5, No. 12.

THE POLISH INSURRECTION.

Ir would appear that the death-hour of despotism is at hand. Hardly have we time to express our admiration of popular heroism in one country, ere in another it puts forth fresh claims to wonder and homage. Its latest manifestation in Poland is peculiarly calculated to delight the lovers of rational liberty; for no nation on earth has been more hardly dealt with, or has struggled with more heroical devotedness for all that is dear to a people, than have the Poles. Enthusiastically attached to their native country, its institutions and recollections, they have at all times evinced a proportionate detestation of foreign interference, and especially of that of Russia. There are few instances on record, of a more deep-rooted animosity between two nations, than between the Poles and Russians-an animosity not to be accounted for by any signal difference in language, manners, or customs; in all of which, they greatly resemble each other. This natural antipathy has, we may conceive, been materially increased by the dismemberment and long oppression of Poland by her more powerful neighbor. The measure of the partition of Poland was worthy of the cruel and reckless ambition of Catherine, but its adoption by the Empress of Austria and the King of Prussia, must be considered a last stain on the characters of the two sovereigns. 51 ATHENT M, VOL. 5, 3d series.

soon

The first partition, which divided one half of the kingdom among the just-mentioned powers, was followed by a second, and Poland, as a nation, was blotted from the map of Europe, Russia obtaining the great sweep. Warsaw and its adjacent provinces were, by this partition, given to Prussia; but at the treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon raised Prussian Poland into an independent duchy, under the sovereignty of the King of Saxony. On the downfall of the French emperor, the Great Powers, at the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, gave the Duchy of Warsaw to Russia, an equivalent being afforded to Prussia in the Rhenish provinces and an important part of the Saxon kingdom. The Emperor Alexander made Poland a separate kingdom, and gave it a national representative diet, the first meeting of which was opened by his Imperial Majesty in person, and the present Grand Duke, Constantine, was returned a Polish representative by the suburb of Praga. The constitution granted by the emperor, established a Chamber of Deputies, elected by the people, and a senate answering to House of Peers. The government was carried on by a Viceroy and a responsible ministry, appointed by the Emperor.

our

Though it is not to be supposed, that the despot of all the Russias had any real intention of giving

constitutional liberty to a vanquish- bered that the French rose to shake ed people, while his own subjects off a despotism, it is true, but not a were in the most abject slavery, foreign one; that they had no fesstill the act itself was so spontane- tering wounds from the galling ous, so unexpected, that the Poles, chains of a foreign yoke, to sting dazzled thereby, believed they had them to maddened fury; and that really obtained a free constitution. the driveling dolt whom they hurlThey were soon undeceived: the ed from his throne, however despiGrand Duke, appointed command- cable and deeply sinning, was yet er-in-chief of the Polish army, was their countryman, and the descennot slow in throwing off the mask. dant of an illustrious family, which Every method by which disregard their ancestors had delighted to and contempt for national feelings honor. For, always excepting the could be conveyed, was adopted by sanguinary period of the first revohim, in open violation of the princi- lution, France has ever been disple of that constitution which his tinguished by a most loyal attachimperial brother had given to the ment to the person and family of Poles. Into the Polish army he the reigning sovereign. But in the introduced corporal punishment, recent-the actual case of Poland, which he often inflicted with his not only was there nothing to call own hands. Self-destruction in some for similar sympathies, but every instances followed such intolerable possible inducement to the adoption outrage. Excesses, indignities, bar- of measures of stern retributive barities of all kinds, were committed justice; and we think a dispassionunder various pretences, by this ate observer will rather find cause miserable scion of despotism, who to wonder at their forbearance, than being deemed unfit to rule in his to censure the momentary impetuown country, was thought well cal- osity by which some of their opculated to crush the spirit of the pressors were sacrificed. Polish people. But at length this trampled spirit turned, and with a moderation which we can hardly admire, they have suffered the brutal mimic of manhood to escape, without wreaking vengeance on him, for his oppression and murder of their long-suffering countrymen.

On the 29th of November an affray broke out between the Russian guards and the pupils of the military school. The flame spread rapidly, and, as at Paris, armed women and youths distinguished themselves by a devoted heroism, which, if tyranny were to be taught at all, might teach it that a spirit too mighty for oppression-a spirit strengthening the feeble with unconquerable energy, has roused the nations to an assertion of their rights. We regret that this heroism on the part of the Poles has not been marked by that moderation which so nobly distinguished the glorious struggle in Paris. But it should be remem

The Provisional Government issued a proclamation acknowledging the authority of Nicholas, but requiring, on his part, that the Constitution granted by Alexander be preserved, and administered according to its original and true interpretation-that the States be kept separate that no foreign troops be admitted into Polandand that the old Polish provinces, formerly separated from the kingdom, and added to Russia, be now restored to Poland. That these demands were deemed extravagant by an autocrat schooled in the doctrines of despotism, and flushed with the success of recent and important victories, was to be expected. But we are willing to hope that even he and those of his order may perceive we know that they shortly must be taught that there is a right prior and more indefeasible than their own, and that no longer can it be thwarted or oppressed. A Manifesto has since been issued,

which proclaims their wrongs in a dignified and feeling manner, and their enthusiastic determination to remedy them. An immediate levy of 200,000 men has been decreed, and that invaluable force, the Burgher Guard, has been formed. The whole population will arm, and, if war must decide the question, it will be war to the knife.

There is every reason to hope that Gallicia and Posen will respectively shake off the trammels of Austrian and Prussian dominion. With all our conviction of the bigoted despotism by which the courts of Vienna and Berlin are guided in their estimate of popular rights, we are yet disposed to believe that they will have enough to do at home for some time to come. And at St. Petersburgh too, the capital of that imperial philanthropist, who is reported to have sworn with ungovernable rage, that the rascally Poles should return to his benevolent guardianship, or he would slay every man of themeven at St. Petersburgh certain indications have appeared of a nature to alarm his fatherly solicitude. We see that the government have found it necessary to issue a proclamation against young men of rank, and of no rank, for combining toge ther for the purpose of what think you, reader?—of breaking the windows. This care on the part of the executive, proves, as the Petersburghians are told in the proclamation, how watchful the government are for their welfare, and for the preservation of order. To us it proves something more-namely, that in the present convulsion of the political world, the autocratic thrones begin to totter, and that, while Nicholas and Metternich, and the Prussian state-pilot, are gnashing their idle rage at the movement they would fain control in Poland, their immediate efforts may be required in Petersburgh, in Austrian Italy, and among the often bamboozled patriots of Berlin. In this latter city, a convulsion is expected, and, may we not say hoped ?

"High deeds, O Germans, we expect from you!"

And we doubt not that you will find better work for his Prussian Majesty than looking after Posen.

We are no lovers of revolutions. We know their almost necessary evil, their fearful summoning of the fiercer passions of our nature, the sullen, civil hatred by which brother is armed against brother, the long ordeal of furious license, giddy anarchy, and promiscuous slaughter! Of all this we are fully aware. The crime of the man who lets loose the revolutionary plague, for revenge, love of gain, or love of power, is beyond all measure and all atonement.

The

The first revolution of France, in 1789, was an abhorred effort of an ambition which nothing could satiate, and nothing could purify. The late revolution was a thing of strong necessity, less an assault on the privileges of royalty, than a vindication of human nature. people who could have succumbed under so base and insolent a violation of kingly promises, would have virtually declared themselves slaves, and fit for nothing but slaves. The Polish revolution is justified by every feeling which makes freedom of religion, person, and property, dear to man. Poland owes no allegiance to Russia. The bayonet gave, and the bayonet will take away. So perish the triumph that scorns justice, and so rise the holy claim of man, to enjoy unfettered the being that God has given him.

Nothing in history is equal in guilty and ostentatious defiance of all principle to the three Partitions of Poland. The pretences for the seizure of the Polish provinces were instantly the open ridicule of all Europe. But Russia, Prussia, and Austria had the power; they scorned to wait for the right; they as profligately scorned to think of the torrents of blood that must be poured out in the struggle by the indignant Poles. Thousands of gallant lives sacrificed in the field; tens of thousands destroyed by the more

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