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them seem like dreams or vivid recollections of persons we have seen. I never could mistake Vandyke's for anything but pictures, and I go up to examine them as such when I see a fine Sir Joshua, I can neither suppose it to be a mere picture nor a man; and I almost involuntarily turn back to ascertain if it is not some one behind me reflected in the glass: when I see a Titian, I am riveted to it, and I can no more take my eye off from it than if it were the very individual in the room. That," he said, "is, I think, peculiar to Titian, that you feel on your good behavior in the presence of his keen-looking heads, as if you were before company." Liberality-Mr. Robert Fenwick, lately established at Choisy, near Paris, supplies one half of the milk necessary for the Hôtel Dieu, a contract which requires from 4,000 to 4,500 litres a-month. This respectable gentleman has made an offer to the director, who has accepted the generous proposal, to furnish gratis the whole quantity of milk, from July 27, so long as there shall be at the Hotel Dieu any of the men who were wounded in the memorable contest.

Few young men of agreeable persons or conversation turn out great artists. It is easier to look in the glass than to make a dull canvass shine like a lucid mirror; and, as to talking, Sir Joshua used to say, a painter should sew up his mouth. It was only the love of distinction that produced eminence; and if a man was admired for one thing, that was enough. We only work out our way to excellence by being imprisoned in defects. It requires a long apprenticeship, great pains, and prodigious self-denial, which no man will submit to, except from necessity, or as the only chance he has of escaping from obscurity. I remember when Mr. Locke (of Norbury-Park) first came over from Italy, and old Dr. Moore, who had a high opinion of him, was crying up his drawings, and asked me if I did not think he would make a great painter? I said, "No, never!" Why not?" "Because he has six thousand a-year." No one would throw away all the advantages and indulgences this ensured him, to shut himself up in a garret to pore over that which, after all, may expose him to contempt and ridicule. Artists, to be sure, have gone on painting after they have got rich, such as Rubens and Titian, and indeed Sir Joshua; but then it had by this time become a habit and a source of pleasure instead of a toil to them, and the honors and distinction they had acquired by it counterbalanced every other consideration. Their love of the art had become greater than their love of riches or of idleness: but at first this is not the case, and the repugnance to labor is only mastered by the absolute necessity for it.

Animal Magnetism.-The professors of

this art in Germany pretend to have discovered the means of plunging animals into magnetic sleep. A German paper mentions several real or pretended instances of success.

Originality.-Northcote said that Sir Joshua used to say that no one produced more than six original things. I always said it was wrong to fix upon this number -five out of the six would be found, upon examination, to be repetitions of the first. A man can no more produce six original works than he can be six individuals at once. Whatever is the strong and prevailing bent of his genius, he will stamp upon some master-work; and what he does else, will be only the same thing over again, a little better or a little worse; or if he goes out of his way in search of variety and to avoid himself, he will merely become a common-place man or an imitator of others.

Potato Cheese.-In many parts of Saxony, cheese is made in the following manner from potatoes:-Take the best potatoes and boil them; when cold, beat them in a mortar into a pulp, adding a pint of sour milk to 5lbs. of potatoes. Keep the mass covered for three or four days, and then beat it again. Make it into small cheeses, which are to be placed in baskets, to let the superfluous moisture escape. Dry them in the shade, and then pile them on each other for 15 days; after which they may be put away in any manner in a dry place. They have a very pleasant flavor, and will keep good for years, improving with age.

Mrs. Ibbot used to relate to me many whimsical illustrations of dramatic life; and among others, once said, that about the period of her entering the profession (1740), she was present at the performance of an old Roman play, in a gentleman's barn in Norfolk, when the principal actor came forward to deliver the prologue (which then in the country used generally to be a part of the plot), and having to say, "When Hannibal and Scipio first waged war, they took a circumference to Africa," he enunciated-" When Han-ni-bawal and Ski-pi-o first wag-ged war, they took a kirk-kum-fer-ence round to Afri-ca."

Curious Party Titles.-Two factions, for nearly two centuries, divided and agitated the whole population of Holland and Zealand. One bore the title of Hoeks (fishing-hooks); the other was called Kaabeljauws (cod fish.) The origin of these burlesque denominations was a dispute between two parties at a feast, as to whether the cod-fish took the hook, or the hook took the cod-fish? This apparently frivolous dispute was made the pretext for a serious quarrel; and the partisans of the nobles and those of the towns ranged themselves at either side, and assumed different badges of distinction. The Hoeks, partisans of the towns, wore red caps: the Kaabeljauws wore grey ones.

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

Fragments of Voyages and Travels. By Captain Basil Hall, R.N., are preparing.

Thos. Haynes Bayly, Esq., announces a Poem on the French Revolution of 1830, with Wood-cuts, from Designs by George Cruikshank.

We understand that a new daily evening paper will shortly make its appearance, called The Albion, for the purpose of giving a liberal support to the ministry of the Duke of Wellington.

Rosamond, a Tragedy, from the German of Theodore Korner.

The Rev. Mr. Grant promises a Volume on the Character of a Christian Family, entitled "The Rectory of Valehead."

The Father's Eye is announced by Mrs. Sherwood, together with the Two Paths; the Lofty and the Lowly Way; and the Mountain Oak.

er,

The Winter's Wreath for 1831, illustrated with 13 Engravings, will speedily

appear.

Wilson's American Ornithology," with the continuation by Charles Lucien Bonaparte, will contain upwards of 100 Engravings, with an enumeration of the newly discovered species. By Sir William Jardine, Bart., Author of Illustrations of Ornithology.

Professor Jameson is preparing for Constable's Miscellany, an edition of Wilson's great work on American Ornithology.

Mr. Kennedy, the Author of Fitful Fancies, announces The Arrow and the Rose, with other Poems.

The Proprietors of the Friendship's Offering announce a Comic Offering, under the Superintendence of Miss L. H. Sheridan.

The French Keepsake, embellished with 18 Engravings on Steel, will appear at the usual period.

The forthcoming Volumes of Lardner's Cyclopædia are the Military Memoirs of Arthur, Duke of Wellington, and the Life and Reign of George the Fourth.

The Second Number of the National Library has for its subject the History of the Bible, by the Rev. G. R. Gleig. It is designed to convey a connected and accurate view of the several religious dispensations granted to mankind from the creation to the establishment of Christianity.

A new publication, named "The Remembrance," is promised among the forthcoming Annuals for 1831. From a specimen of the engravings which has been circulated, it holds forth no inconsiderable claim to public patronage, while, from the known ability of Mr. Thomas Roscoe, the editor, it may be fairly presumed that the literary part will fully equal that of any rival work.

A History of the Covenanters, from the Reformation to the Revolution in 1668, will shortly appear.

The accomplished and veteran artist, Mr. Northcote, has just completed for publication a Life of Titian, including Notices of the Arts, and Anecdotes of distinguished persons in his time. From such a hand, the public may well expect a series of living portraits.

Under the name of "Scenes of Life and Shades of Character," a work is shortly expected, of which the most favorable anticipations are formed by those who are in the secret of the authorship.

The Life of Sir Humphry Davy, by Dr. Paris, which has been a long time in preparation, is likely to appear towards the close of the present month. An able life of this great man, long a desideratum, both as regards the interests of science and the gratification of general curiosity, may be expected from the pen of this distinguished writer.

A new edition of Hope Leslie, a tale of social and savage life, by the author of "Clarence," is announced.

Sir Jonah Barrington's Personal Sketches, that were found so fertile in amusement and variety, are to be republished immediately, with the addition of new anecdotes and sketches.

Lives of Captain Hugh Clapperton and Dr. Oudney, Travellers in the Interior of Africa, are announced.

The Edinburgh Encyclopædia is at last completed, and we regret to hear from that good city that the Editor and Proprietors have gone to Joggerheads about the Preface.

The Author of "Marriage" is busy with a novel for next season, entitled Destiny: she is a good writer, and cannot fail, we think, to produce a good book.

Mr. Atherstone, the author of the "Fall of Nineveh " (a production of great ability, though we fear not sufficiently accordant with the taste of the day to have been encouraged as it ought), is also turning his attention to prose, and promises us the Sea Kings in England, a romance of the time of Alfred.

The Romantic Annals of France, from the time of Charlemagne to the reign of Louis XIV., will form the new series of "The Romance of History." By Leitch Ritchie.

Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia, Vol. X., contains the History of the Netherlands, by T. C. Grattan, Esq.

Major Leith Hay is preparing a Narrative of the Peninsular Campaigns, extending over a period of nearly six years' service in Spain and Portugal, from 1808 to 1814.

Murray's Family Library, Vol. XVI., contains Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft. By Sir Walter Scott, Bart. Addressed to his Son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, Esq. An interesting extract from thei will be found in our number of to-day.

OF THE

ENGLISH MAGAZINES.

THIRD SERIES.] BOSTON, DECEMBER 1, 1830.

[VOL. 5, No. 5.

AFFECTATION.

AMONG the many vices and follies to which human nature is prone, there is not one which shows its imperfection and inconsistency in so glaring a light as that of affectation. If men only affected such qualities as they might reasonably be desirous of possessing, this failing might not be without its use the habit of assuming an appearance of virtue and good sense, would, perhaps, lead to the possession of them, or at least engender a certain degree of respect for all that is worthy and estimable; and many people would doubtless discover this very useful fact, that the attainment of excellence is easier than the affectation of it, which can seldom be practised with complete success. But, unfortunately, few take the pains to affect those endowments which, if really possessed, would do them credit. It is to the most childish, the most contemptible habits, that affectation commonly leads; and many a person assumes imperfections and weaknesses that are far from belonging to his character, and which, if he thought seriously on the subject, he would hasten to disclaim. To be free from all pretence, and to maintain, as it is usually termed, a natural character, is considered with approval in either sex; and one would therefore suppose, that a commendation so easily deserved would be very generally laid claim to, and that perfect simplicity, that is, the absence of all affectation, 22 ATHENEUM, VOL. 5, 3d series.

must become too universal for remark. Yet we do not find it so : we see people make a great effort to appear easy and natural; but effort only leads them farther from nature, and even simplicity must be the effect of habit. We often hear a man of good education say coarse, blunt things; or a woman who can speak rationally, chatter the most puerile nonsense, in order to pass for a natural character; forgetting that the propensities natural to one mind are foreign to another; and debasing the nobler nature, to affect that which is mean and insipid. It should be remembered that, by long habit, that which was at first assumed becomes natural; that the drawl, the swagger, the foolish lisp, or the vulgar idiom, adopted at the age of twenty, will be unconquerable at twenty-five; that common sense, however deeply implanted, will not thrive without cultivation; and that he who neglects to use his reason in youth, may be pretty sure of becoming a mere driveller before his hairs are grey.

At the first view it appears totally unaccountable how such a vice as affectation can exist, since we see no inducement that any one can have for rendering himself, in any respect, more imperfect than nature has already made him. But a moment's reflection will show as, that the main-spring of this as well as of many other errors, is self-love, which, if not carefully checked, engenders a con

stant desire to attract notice, no matter by what means; an effort to shine, without ceasing; and a total forgetfulness of a rule admitting of very few exceptions-that the most beautiful objects lose a part of their attraction by being placed in too

strong a light. A person with only just sense enough to be quiet, will always make a better figure than he who, in his anxiety to obtain applause, suffers his efforts to degenerate into affectation, and, intolerant of neglect, cannot fail to incur ridicule.

ROYAL PATRONAGE OF LITERATURE.

It must be allowed that the French do showy things in the most showy style of any nation of Europe. One of their old merits was the patronage of Literature. From Louis the Fourteenth down to Napoleon, they had the honorable ambition of struggling for the precedence in every class of literary fame; and the allowable dexterity of flattering the leading writers of all countries into a regard for France. They gave little distinctions, little medals, little pensions, and little titles to the little men of academies in all lands, and reaped the full harvest of those donations in praise.

The Russians, always imitators of the Grande Nation, and extremely anxious to play the same part on the continent, whether with the pen or the pike, the cannon or the cordon rouge; have been for some years trying the same plan, and giving rings, like thimbles, set with diamonds that certainly have a vil lainous likeness to Bristol stones; but those rings were given to all sorts of people for all sorts of things: for a new pattern of a joint-stool, for a five-shilling compilation of barbarous poetry, for a pair of breeches cut out of the living bear, for a tctotum on a new and infallible construction, "warranted to spin," for a print of the features of some grim Slavonic ancestor, some Count of Wolfania, or Duke of Saberland, taken from the original carving in the Church of our Holy Mother of Kasan, or for a quarto of Travels through Russia, with all the anecdotes, from the newspapers, all the discoveries, from the road-books, all the history, from the tables

d'hôte, and all the "vignettes, views, inscriptions," original,-from the print-shops.

On these brilliant productions even the thimbles of the Czar Nicholas were thrown away; and the imperial liberality being fairly exhausted some time since, and finding that no European fame redounded to it from the labors of "illustrious men (unknown in any country but their own, and there known only to be laughed at), has prohibited "All men by these presents," in future to dedicate book, or send print, or transmit sleeve-button, and above all to insult it with poetry. The Russian ambassador has received strict orders, on pain of the knout, not to transmit any further beggar's petition of this kind to his Imperial Majesty; and notice has been given to contributors in general that, though Siberia is but a month's journey from St. Petersburg, the Czar is about locating a new settlement for their benefit within sight of the Pole.

Louis Philippe, however, is beginning on a better plan, much more useful to the world, and which will repay France much more steadily in praise (to this we have no objection) than money lavished on such slippery personages as the mob of authorship. We are informed that "The King of the French has given instructions to a distinguished littérateur to obtain for him a correct list of all the literary and scientific bodies in Europe, with a precise account of their charitable institutions, in order that he may subscribe to those which he considers the most deserving of support.

It is

stated that at present the king bestows nearly one million of francs per annum, directly, or indirectly, in the encouragement of literature and science; and that he insists

upon each of his children patronising works of art to an extent justified by the pecuniary means which he has placed at their disposal." This is manly, and kingly too.

EXPIATION.

MARGARET BURNSIDE was an orphan. Her parents, who had been the poorest people in the parish, had died when she was a mere child; and as they had left no near relatives, there were few or none to care much about the desolate creature, who might be well said to have been left friendless in the world. True, that the feeling of charity is seldom wholly wanting in any heart; but it is generally but a cold feeling among hardworking folk, towards objects out of the narrow circle of their own family affections, and selfishness has a ready and strong excuse in necessity. There seems, indeed, to be a sort of chance in the lot of the orphan offspring of paupers. On some the eye of Christian benevolence falls at the very first moment of their uttermost destitution-and their worst sorrows, instead of beginning, terminate with the tears shed over their parents' graves. They are taken by the hands, as soon as their hands have been stretched out for protection, and admitted as inmates into households, whose doors, had their fathers and mothers been alive, they would never have darkened. The light of comfort falls upon them during the gloom of grief, and attends them all their days. Others, again, are overlooked at the first fall of affliction, as if in some unaccountable fatality; the wretchedness with which all have become familiar, no one very tenderly pities; and thus the orphan, reconciled herself to the extreme hardships of her condition, lives on uncheered by those sympathies out of which grow both happiness and virtue, and yielding by degrees to the constant pressure of

her lot, becomes poor in spirit as in estate, and either vegetates like an almost worthless weed that is carelessly trodden on by every foot, or if by nature born a flower, in time loses her lustre, and all her daysnot long-leads the life not so much of a servant as of a slave.

Such, till she was twelve years old, had been the fate of Margaret Burnside. Of a slender form and weak constitution, she had never been able for much work; and thus from one discontented and harsh master and mistress to another, she had been transferred from house to house-always the poorest-till she came to be looked on as an encumbrance rather than a help in any family, and thought hardly worth her bread. Sad and sickly she sat on the braes herding the kine. It was supposed that she was in a consumption-and as the shadow of death seemed to lie on the neglected creature's face, a feeling something like love was awakened towards her in the heart of pity, for which she showed her gratitude by still attending to all household tasks with an alacrity beyond her strength. Few doubted that she was dyingand it was plain that she thought so herself; for the Bible, which, in her friendlessness, she had always read more than other children, who were too happy to reflect often on the Word of that Being from whom their happiness flowed, was now, when leisure permitted, seldom or never out of her hands, and in lonely places, where there was no human ear to hearken, did the dying girl often support her heart when quaking in natural fears of the grave, by singing to herself hymns and psalms.

But her hour was not

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