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THE GATHERER.

"Little things have their value."

Spanish Idea of the Arts.-A letter from Madrid says: "Our government patronises the arts with a dignity worthy of it. It has just established at Seville a school of tauromachy, under the protection of the intendant. This school has two professors, with salaries of 12,000, and 8,000 reals; and, henceforth, every town or village wishing to have bull-fights, must contribute at least 100 reals towards the expense of the school."

New Medicine-It is stated, in a letter from Rome, that the French medical men in that city continue to administer, with great success against intermittent fevers, the bark of the willow. These gentlemen assert that it has more power than Peruvian bark.

The Three Brothers. It is a remarkable circumstance in the history of France that the line of Capet became extinct in the person of Charles IV., the last of three brothers who sat successively on the throne. The race of Valois succeeded; and in the progress of a few centuries died. out in the same manner after the successive reigns of the brothers, Francis II., Charles IX., and Henry III. To this dynasty the house of Bourbon was the next in order, and after the death of Louis XVI. and Louis XVIII., and the abdication of the third brother Charles X., it seems extremely probable that the period of their royalty is arrived.

Sugar. The quantity of sugar at present consumed in Great Britain may be estimated at 160,000 tons, or about 360,000,000 Ibs.; which taking the population at 16 millions, gives, at an average, 221-2 lbs. for each individual. In workhouses, the customary annual allowance for each individual is, we believe, 34 lbs. ; and in private families the smallest separate allowance for domestics is 1 lb. a-week, or 52 lbs.

a-year.

Volcano.-Letters from Sicily give lamentable details of the late eruption of Mount Etna. Eight villages, not one of which was ever before affected by the flames or lava of the volcano, have been buried under enormous masses of stones and cinders. The coasts of Calabria, and some parts of Italy, exposed to the wind, have been covered with the same red dust as the vicinity of Etna. The country round the volcano has been completely desolated. Prince Jules of Polignac.-The father of this prince emigrated, like many other French noblemen, at the beginning of the Revolution, and resided for some time at Radstadt (Grand Duchy of Baden). On the birth-day of his son Jules (the present too famous ex-minister of France), when he had attained his tenth year, he invited all his companions in misfortune, and some

other friends, and showed them into a room, where, upon a table, a crucifix and two lighted candles had been placed. He then ordered young Jules to approach the table, and, in imitation of Amilcar (Hannibal's father), bound him by an oath, that he would always oppose the French Revolution and the principles to which it had given birth. This solemn act seems to have powerfully worked upon the mind of the young nobleman, and may explain in some measure his detestation of liberal ideas. With right, one can apply to him what the poet says:

"Children, like tender osiers, take the bow, And as they first are fashion'd always grow."

French Honesty.-The following paragraph appears in Gallignani's Messenger of Monday :-" On Wednesday, 200 young mechanics and workmen, who had been fighting all the previous day, without tasting food, traversed the restaurant that connects the Rue Vivienne with the Passage Colbert, for the purpose of procuring arms, said to be concealed in one of the warehouses of the latter place. A number of silver forks and spoons, with heaps of small loaves, were lying on the various tables of the establishment; but though the band passed twice from one extremity to the other of the restaurant, not a single article was put out of its place, or a morsel of bread touched."

Pearls.-Pearls are the morbid secretions of an oyster. Several species of bivalved shellfish produce them, but the greater number, the finest and the largest, are procured from the Meleagrina margaritifera Lamarck, a native of the sea, and of various coasts. The pearls are situated either in the body of the oyster, or they lie loose between it and the shell, or lastly they are fixed to the latter by a kind of neck; and it is said they do not appear until the animal has reached its fourth year. Ceylon continues to be, as it was in the time of the Romans, the most productive of these ornaments. In the last century several of great size were found in the rivers of the county of Tyrone and Donegal in Ireland.

Potato on the Mountain Orizaba.-MM. Shiede and Deppe, in a letter to Baron A. Humboldt, giving an account of their ascent to the great volcano of Orizaba in Mexico, mention, that they found the potato in a wild state, at a height of 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. about three and a half inches high, with large blue flowers, and tubers the size of a hazel nut.

It was

The French Press. It is stated, by persons who are thoroughly acquainted with the facts, that, on the abolition of the liberty of the press by Charles X., and the consequent stoppage of the liberal journals,

property to the amount of more than 150,000l. was either destroyed or placed in danger of destruction; and upwards of three hundred literary persons and compositors were thrown out of bread. The number of copies of the Constitutionnel, Journal des Debats, Courier, National, Temps, and Journal du Commerce, printed daily, exceeded fifty-five thousand; and it is computed that the readers of these papers diurnally were upwards of two millions. It is supposed, however, that since the liberty of the press has again taken place, the number of copies of these papers will increase to eighty thousand daily.

Japan. It is well known that the Japanese will not hold any intercourse with Europeans, whom they treat like persons infected with the plague. Indeed, it is as much as their lives are worth to approach a foreigner. They are content and happy under the present order of things, and consider a jealous avoidance of all contact with strangers as the surest means to preserve their present state. When Captain Kotzebue visited the island, on his first voyage with Krusenstern, a seven months' residence justified him in asserting, that to know the Japanese was to esteem them -so high was the degree of rational civilization to which they had attained: and this, entirely by their own resources, uninfluenced and unaided by foreign example. He admits that the isolated position in which the island is kept, may also be a consequence of the jealousy entertained by a despotic government, who may feel alarmed at the spread of ideas inimical to its durability.

A Sharp, a Flat, and a Natural.-An Irishman (a sharp), after paying his fare to Ireland, a few days ago, found that he had only one shilling left, and, in order to make the most of it, hastened to a pawnbroker (a fiat), to pledge it. The pawnbroker at first refused, saying he did not take money in pawn. "Sure," said the applicant, 'you take silver; give me as much as you can for it, and a ticket." Upon this proposal 11 1-2d. was advanced, along with a ticket. The ticket he afterwards sold to his landlady (a natural) for ninepence.

66

France. The following lines are stuck on the walls in different parts of Paris :Camarade le Dey, par moi ton fort est pris. -Oui, l'ami Charles dix: mais vous perdez

Paris.

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paper-manufactories, and 100 others, employing altogether 12,000 hands. This was an increase of double within twenty years. The culture of tobacco in parts of the Russian empire is followed with success; and the breed of Merino sheep in other parts is very lucrative: the wool is said to be of the best possible quality.

Killing with Kindness.-A benevolent gentleman of Kilkenny humanely gave some sheep to be killed for the use of the starving poor: they were incautiously boiled in copper vessels, which had not been used for a considerable time before, and were, in consequence, rusted with incrustations of verdigris. Several of the poor had portions of the soup served out to them, and the result was, that five died, and twenty-five are in a state which leaves no hope of their recovery!

Electricity. A very beautiful electrical experiment may be thus performed. Take a glass tube of the height of the machine, and attach it to a stand. Coat about three fourths of the upper part of the inside of it with metal, and fix a brass cap on the top. Then varnish one half of the outside from the top to the bottom, and when nearly dry apply a coat of bronze. On placing the instrument thus constructed near the conductor, a most brilliant ramified spark will pass through the whole length of the tube.

The late Revolution in France.-In one

week from the date of the obnoxious ordinances, the King and his ministers were actually expelled from power. Let those who affect to despise the influence of the press pause at this act of retribution and regeneration in a country where the press enjoyed but a moderate share of liberty. The first measure of violence resorted to by the government was the destruction of the printing presses of the journals-in three days after, the King, the ministers, and the gens d'armerie, were beaten beyond the barriers; the army were seen mingling with the citizen-soldiers; a provisional government was established; and the insulted representatives of the people were again convoked in their Chamber. And all this was done with as little bloodshed as possible. The number of lives sacrificed bore no proportion to the vastness of the end accomplished. It appeared to be the work of opinion rather than physical force-a moral revolution, where Tyranny apparitions in a phantasma fade away in sunk before the majesty of Justice, as the the light of the sun. There is no sympathy entertained for the wretched CHARLES. The Dey of ALGIERS exhibited a small magnanimity that deserves our compassion, while his miserable victor is degraded below our pity. We cannot extend to him even our contempt. It is remarkable that the same page in history which will represent the French King crowned with conquest, will also show him cast out wanderer on the earth. The gems are

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exchanged for straw and thorns-and nobody pities him. Even the Dauphinesswho, according to BUONAPARTE, is the only man in the BOURBON family-intensely despises him. Her woman's nature can find in his case no excuse for a woman's weakness. It is said, we know not how truly, that the deposed King intends to settle in America. Another account consigns him to the shores of England. Should the latter statement be true, we hope that his path may be solitary wherever he treads; that the people will hold their breath, and shrink from him as he approaches; that there will be no manifestations of anger or indignation, but that the stillness of death, the desolation and loneliness of desertexile, will surround him; that he may find no companionship, hear no voice of welcome, no sound of lamentation; that intercourse may fly from his deserted circle; that he may be avoided as one whose crimes are of a nameless character-too revolting to be trusted to the language of human malediction, and left in shuddering hopelessness to the punishment of Heaven. A tyrant can only be made to feel utter destitution. -London Atlas.

If You won't I will.-A laboring man, named Squires, who resided at Wonford, in the parish of Haviltree, hung himself in his bedroom on Saturday evening. Report says that he arrived at his home in a state of intoxication; and on his wife accusing him of being drunk, which he denied, and saying she would rather hang herself than live with such a man, he turned the tables upon her by hanging himself.

Ornamental Pottery. The patent process resorted to by Mr. Wright for this purpose consists, first, in the manufacture of ornamental tiles, &c. from the finer clays, and in so combining and firing such clays as to produce a solid semi-vitrified substance, which, it is stated, will be more durable than marble or stone; and secondly, in ornamenting such pavements with various devices and patterns, as coats of arms, tesselated pavements, &c. To effect the latter, the clay is, in the first instance, impressed with the intended device, by means of a stamp or mould made of plaster of Paris. The mould must be inclosed in a casing of metal to protect the sides, and then any required number of impressions may be taken, the clay which is to be impressed being colored by metallic oxides.

ther should in no case be raised from the surface of the water, till the whole of the phosphorus be driven through.

Sugar from Starch.-The substance of Mr. Heinrich's memoir on this important subject may be thus described:-M. H. says, that from one to two parts of sulphuric acid for each 100 parts of potato starch is sufficient, if the heat applied be a few degrees above 212; and also, that then two or three hours are sufficient to give crystallizable sugar. He applies the heat in wooden vessels by means of steam.

Good Nature.-Louis XIV., in a gay party at Versailles, thought he perceived an opportunity of relating a facetious story. He commenced, but ended the tale abruptly and insipidly. One of the company soon afterwards leaving the room, the King said, "I am sure you must all have observed how very uninteresting my anecdote was. I did not recollect till I began, that the turn of the narrative reflected very severely on the immediate ancestor of the Prince of Armagnac, who has just quitted us; and on this, as on every other occasion, I think it far better to spoil a good story than distress a worthy man.'

LITERARY NOTICES.

The readers and admirers of the Life of Sir Thomas Munro will be gratified to learn that a Third Volume of the Correspondence of that distinguished functionary is about to see the light. Besides a continuation of those delightful letters to his family, which formed the principal charm of the preceding volumes, there are, we understand, in the present, his familiar communications to the Duke of Wellington, the Marquess of Hastings, Mr. Elphinstone, Sir Graham Moore, and a great number of the most conspicuous characters of the age, which will cause their publication to be looked for with the deepest in

terest.

A Series of Conversations, on various topics of exciting interest, is expected with much curiosity by the friends of art and literature. It comprises those of the venerable academician, Northcote, held with and detailed by Mr. Hazlitt. The peculiarities, as well as the talents, of both individuals, must render this a work of no ordinary description.

List of New Books. Guide to Watering Places, new edition. Mansart's Lycee, &c. Fearn on Cerebral Vision. Midsummer Medley for 1830. Reade's Revolt of the Angels. Burn's Penmanship. Whiting's Description and Use of the Globes. Wilson's Questions on St. Mark. Taylor's Little Library, Vol. II. the Ship. Sugden's Acts, by Jemmett. Burn's Aðdress to the Deil, 11 engravings on wood. Brighton, a Comic Sketch, 7 illustrations. Soame's Bampton Lectures, 1830. Finelly on Elections. Murray on Consumption. Charles Morrison's Elements of Practical Arithmetic. Murphy's New Theory of

Phosphorus.-This chemical body may be purified for a variety of processes connected with the arts, by merely placing it in a piece of chamois leather. After closely tying it in the leather, it should be immersed in a vessel of hot water. The phosphorus melts almost immediately, and when in a fluid state may be pressed through the leather in a pure state. measure of precaution to the experimentalist, it may be proper to add, that the lea- Astronomy.

As a

OF THE

ENGLISH MAGAZINES.

THIRD SERIES.] BOSTON, NOVEMBER 1, 1830.

[VOL. 5, No. 3.

FERDINAND THE BELOVED; OR, ROYAL GRATITUDE.*

The proclamation concluded by declaring the CORTES to be dissolved; and ordaining that all opposing the execution of this decree should suffer DEATH!!!-Annals of the Peninsular Campaigns.

AFTER an arduous service of six years in Portugal and Spain, during the whole of the interesting campaigns in these countries, I was at length indulged with permission to revisit England, on the short leave of absence of two months. Anxious to behold the gratifying spectacle of an idolized monarch reascending the throne of his ancestors, amidst the acclamations and blessings of his devoted people, after so many years of vicissitude in the fortune of war, I waived my original intention of embarking in the British packet from Cadiz, and determined on a journey to Madrid; having found a ready companion for the voyage in my friend, (a merchant of the former city,) at whose establishment, at Xeres de la Frontera, I had been passing some pleasant weeks.

Our preparations were immediately commenced. Knowing by experience how sadly destitute the houses of public accommodation on our route were of those conveniences, which are to be found, with a greater or less degree of comfort, in other parts of the European con

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tinent, I stored my ample canteens, (capable of furnishing a breakfast and dinner service for four persons,) with an abundant stock of tea, coffee, chocolate, sugars, liqueurs, and a gallon of old "King's own rum (which had not seen the light for five years); nor did I omit (although no smoker myself) to fill a canister with a few dozen of prime Havannah cigars, of such a superior quality, that my fuming friends bestowed on them the name of " sugar-plums."

Money, or liquor, no doubt, will have their influence in all countries; but to a Spaniard, a more tempting bribe could not be offered to quicken the movements of every man on the road, from the Director-general of Posts in his gaudy coat, down to the humble driver in his sheep-skin jacket, than a good cigar! It has been even known to mollify the heart of the rude bandit, and cause him, whilst rifling his victim, to utter an apologetic-" Pardon me, sir, for this little liberty!"

We discovered a chariot of ancient fashion for sale, which had

The reference in this article to the proceedings in Spain in the year 1814 will be read with peculiar interest at the present time, when a revolution in France has just been effected presenting so brilliant a contrast to the one here described, and when other countries in Europe, and particularly Spain herself, are apparently on the eve of asserting and maintaining those rights which sixteen years since were so ingloriously resigned.

13 ATHENEUM VOL. 5, 3d series.

exchanged for straw and thorns-and nobody pities him. Even the Dauphinesswho, according to BUONAPARTE, is the only man in the BOURBON family-intensely despises him. Her woman's nature can find in his case no excuse for a woman's weakness. It is said, we know not how truly, that the deposed King intends to settle in America. Another account consigns him to the shores of England. Should the latter statement be true, we hope that his path may be solitary wherever he treads; that the people will hold their breath, and shrink from him as he approaches; that there will be no manifestations of anger or indignation, but that the stillness of death, the desolation and loneliness of desertexile, will surround him; that he may find no companionship, hear no voice of welcome, no sound of lamentation; that intercourse may fly from his deserted circle; that he may be avoided as one whose crimes are of a nameless character-too revolting to be trusted to the language of human malediction, and left in shuddering hopelessness to the punishment of Heaven. A tyrant can only be made to feel utter destitution. -London Atlas.

If You won't I will.-A laboring man, named Squires, who resided at Wonford, in the parish of Haviltree, hung himself in his bedroom on Saturday evening. Report says that he arrived at his home in a state of intoxication; and on his wife accusing him of being drunk, which he denied, and saying she would rather hang herself than live with such a man, he turned the tables upon her by hanging himself.

Ornamental Pottery. The patent process resorted to by Mr. Wright for this purpose consists, first, in the manufacture of ornamental tiles, &c. from the finer clays, and in so combining and firing such clays as to produce a solid semi-vitrified substance, which, it is stated, will be more durable than marble or stone; and secondly, in ornamenting such pavements with various devices and patterns, as coats of arms, tesselated pavements, &c. To effect the latter, the clay is, in the first instance, impressed with the intended device, by means of a stamp or mould made of plaster of Paris. The mould must be inclosed in a casing of metal to protect the sides, and then any required number of impressions may be taken, the clay which is to be impressed being colored by metallic oxides.

Phosphorus.-This chemical body may be purified for a variety of processes connected with the arts, by merely placing it in a piece of chamois leather. After closely tying it in the leather, it should be immersed in a vessel of hot water. The phosphorus melts almost immediately, and when in a fluid state may be pressed through the leather in a pure state. measure of precaution to the experimentalist, it may be proper to add, that the lea

As a

ther should in no case be raised from the surface of the water, till the whole of the phosphorus be driven through.

Sugar from Starch.-The substance of Mr. Heinrich's memoir on this important subject may be thus described:-M. H. says, that from one to two parts of sulphuric acid for each 100 parts of potato starch is sufficient, if the heat applied be a few degrees above 212; and also, that then two or three hours are sufficient to give crystallizable sugar. He applies the heat in wooden vessels by means of steam.

Good Nature.-Louis XIV., in a gay party at Versailles, thought he perceived an opportunity of relating a facetious story. He commenced, but ended the tale abruptly and insipidly. One of the company soon afterwards leaving the room, the King said, "I am sure you must all have observed how very uninteresting my anecdote was. I did not recollect till I began, that the turn of the narrative reflected very severely on the immediate ancestor of the Prince of Armagnac, who has just quitted us; and on this, as on every other occasion, I think it far better to spoil a good story than distress a worthy man."

LITERARY NOTICES.

The readers and admirers of the Life of Sir Thomas Munro will be gratified to learn that a Third Volume of the Correspondence of that distinguished functionary is about to see the light. Besides a continuation of those delightful letters to his family, which formed the principal charm of the preceding volumes, there are, we understand, in the present, his familiar communications to the Duke of Wellington, the Marquess of Hastings, Mr. Elphinstone, Sir Graham Moore, and a great number of the most conspicuous characters of the age, which will cause their publication to be looked for with the deepest in

terest.

A Series of Conversations, on various topics of exciting interest, is expected with much curiosity by the friends of art and literature. It comprises those of the venerable academician, Northcote, held with and detailed by Mr. Hazlitt. The peculiarities, as well as the talents, of both individuals, must render this a work of no ordinary description.

List of New Books. Guide to Watering Places, new edition. Mansart's Lycee, &c. Fearn on Cerebral Vision. Midsummer Medley for 1830. Reade's Revolt of the Angels. Burn's Penmanship. Whiting's Description and Use of the Globes. Wilson's Questions on St. Mark. Taylor's Little Library, Vol. II. the Ship. Sugden's Acts, by Jemmett. Burn's Address to the Deil, 11 engravings on wood. Brighton, a Comic Sketch, 7 illustrations. Soame's Bampton Lectures, 1830. Finelly on Elections. Murray on Consumption. Charles Morrison's Elements of Practical Arithmetic. Murphy's New Theory of Astronomy.

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