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Chairman-The Right Hon. LORD BROUGHAM, F.R.S., Member of the National lastitute of France

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Jos la f. 18e Enq

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THOMAS COATES, E.G., Secretary, No. 58, Lincoln's Inn Pidde.


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SCANDEROON, or ISKENDEROON, or ALEX- | were the scenes of never-ceasing bloodshed. In the mean ANDRETTA, formerly called Alexandria, a seaport town time Denmark had acquired a more regular govern. in the north of Syria, at the head of the Gulf of Scanderoon, ment, and the famous Margaret, queen of Denmark, sucwhich was founded by Alexander the Great. It is a very ceeded in uniting the crowns of Denmark, Sweden, and unhealthy place, whence it is called in one of the antient Norway in her own person. Norway was acquired by inItineraries Alexandria scabiosa, and only owes its import- heritance, and Sweden by conquest. anee to its being the sea port to Haleb or Aleppo. Its un. By the union of Calmar (1397) these countries were never healthiness is in a great measure owing to the waters which to be disjoined. Norway indeed remained united with flow down from the mountains, and collect in great marshes Denmark up to 1814, but Sweden was separated from it in around the town. Moryson, who visited it in 1596, repre. the middle of the fifteenth century. From that time the two sents it as 'a poor village, built all of straw and dirt, ex countries of Scandinavia constituted separate states, until cepting some houses built of timber and clay in some the year 1814, when Denmark was obliged to cede Norwav convenient sort, and it lies all along the sea-shore. For the to Sweden, and Norway submitted to the new order o. famous city of Aleppo having no other haven, the merchants things. Since that time the whole peninsula has been do here unload their goods, but themselves make haste to under the same king, but the two countries of Norway and Aleppo, staying as little here as possibly they can, and com- Sweden have preserved their constitutions, which differ in mitting the care of carrying their goods upon camels to the every respect. [Norway; Sweden.] factors of their nations continually abiding there. The SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE. The antient Scanpestilent air is the cause that they dare not make any stay dinavian language, once common to the whole north-western there, for this village is compassed on three sides with a fenny portion of Europe beyond the Baltic, is now confined to plain, and the fourth side lies open upon the sea' (quoted by Iceland, where it has undergone little change since the Russell, Natural History of Aleppo, vol. i., p. 358, Lond., ninth century. [ICELAND.) This dialect of the Gothic is the 1794). Niebuhr (Beschreibung, &c., vol. iii., pp. 18, 19, parent stock of both Swedish and Danish, the former of Hamburg, 1837), who visited Scanderoon in 1766, describes which tongues has retained more of the original character its situation and state in much the same terms, and says, than the other, which is also the language of Norway; and that with the exception of the houses of the vice-consuls if not for the literature they contain, in a philological point and merchants, it contains only sixty or seventy poor dwell- of view they deserve far more attention than they have ings, inhabited for the most part by Greeks. He adds, that hitherto obtained from Englishmen, since they throw conthere are the remains of some building in the morass sur-siderable light on the history of our own language. There is rounding the town, which proves that the place was formerly also a striking similarity of construction between them and much larger than it is at present. A similar account of the English, which renders them of comparatively easy acquisistate of Scanderoon is also given by a still more recent tra- tion to ourselves. Nearly the same grammatical simplicity veller (Damoiseau, Voyage en Syrie et dans le Désert, p. 4, prevails, nor are their verbs and nouns subject to those Paris, 1933).

numerous changes of terminations which render such lanSCANDINAVIA is a term adopted in geography and guages as the German and the Russian so perplexing to a bistory, and is of great antiquity. The name Scandinavia oc- foreigner. Into the subject of Scandinavian literature, proeurs in Pliny (Hist. Nat. iv. 13), who states that Scandinavia perly so called, we do not propose to enter, it being one of is the best known island in the Sinus Codanus (the Baltic), such magnitude that of itself alone it would require as much and is of unascertained dimensions. The part which was space as can be afforded for a literary-historical sketch of known was inhabited by the Hilleviones, who had five hun- the two nations whom we here place together under the dred pagi or districts. This description seems to refer to the same common title. large peninsula which forms the north-western portion of Literature, in the usual meaning of the term, was of ex the continent of Europe, and comprehends the countries ceedingly tardy development in both Denmark and Sweden; which at present are known under the names of Norway for whiat learning there was, continued for a long time to and Sweden. The area of this peninsula is somewhat more be confined to the Latin of the schools. The people howthan 300,000 square miles, and it is consequently one-third ever possessed an abundant stock of those traditional poetigreater than France, but as the largest portion of it is cal records which scarcely lay any claim to individual aucovered with sterile mountains, it is in general thinly in- thorship, being rather the embodying of the sentiments and babited, and the whole population does not much exceed feelings of an entire race than those of individuals. or four millions.

these national songs there are many distinguished by the The small sovereignties which existed in this peninsula title of Kiæmpe Viser, or Heroic Ballads, which strains of when it first began to be noticed in history, became united romantic minstrelsy serve to give an idea of the composiinto the two great monarchies of Sweden and Norway in tions of the antient bards or skalds. Deeds of arnis and the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. But the internal bravery constitute their main subjects; for in the infancy gorernments of these states were so ill arranged, that the of states personal courage and physical strength are recountries were continually a prey to internal wars, and they I garded as the chief titles to pre-eminence, more especially P. C., No. 1295.

Vol. XXI.-B

m such a region as Scandinavia, where the sword was the published by Sorenson Wedel, the translator of Saxo Gramonly patrimony of the younger branches of a family, and maticus, in 1591, at the instance of the queen Sophia. Its was a possession quite as honourable and frequently more success was so great that it quickly passed through several lucrative than that of the soil. Possessing a very great ex- editions, and in 1695 Peter Syv added a second hundred tent of sea-coast, the inhabitants regarded ihat element also pieces to the first, which it originally contained. Since that as their natural territory. Their piratical expeditions, under- time similar collections have been published at various taken partly through ne and partly from the love of times; and one of the best and most complete is that by adventure, obtained for them a fearful fame; and the leaders Abrahamson, Nyerup, and Rahbek, in 5 vols. 8vo., Copenof these hardy pirates assumed the imposing title of Sea- hagen, 1812-14. kings. These · Viser' contain moreover no small quantity Together with the Reformation came a change in literary of legendary fable and supernatural lore, derived from the taste-an impulse towards literature, from Germany. Roantient Sagas and the mythology of the Edda [EDDA], mances of chivalry, legends, tales of magic, moralities, and whose wild traditions, half oriental and half northern, were similar works, were translated from that language, as were so congenial to the spirit of the people that they continued also some pieces of Hans Sachs, of the Dutch poet Cats, and to cherish the remembrance of them long after the esta even of the Scots Lindsay. Still notwithstanding that the blishment of Christianity (which was not earlier than the classics, both Greek and Latin, were now generally studied, commencement of the eleventh century); and in modern no one thought of taking them as models of composition, intimes they have been largely made use of by Oehlenschläger stead of servilely copying contemporaries who were themand other living or recent poets, who have found in them selves little advanced before them. Consequently, scarcely a source of powerful interest for their countrymen. For a a name of the slightest importance has been preserved, until while indeed it was very doubtful whether the Gospel would we arrive at that of Anders Arrebo, in the seventeenth cenprevail against the popular belief in the Valhalla. The tury, whose fame is now limited to his being considered the labours of the early missionaries in the ninth and tenth cen- morning star, or rather the harbinger of the modern literaturies produced very little effect; the people continued to ture of Denmark. This writer, wħo was born in the island be almost entirely pagan, and Svend Tvæskiæg, the successor of Aeröe, in 1587, studied at the university of Copenhagen, of Harald, renounced Christianity, and did all he could to and became bishop of Drontheim at the age of thirty, but re-establish the worship of the antient idols; nor was it un was afterwards deprived of his dignity, and retired to Maltil after the accession of Canute the Great (1014) that Chris- möe in Sweden, where he died in 1637. His chief productianity became the national religion, and churches and con tion is his · Hexaemeron,' a poem in heroic rhyme, on the vents began to be built. For several years afterwards however creation, in imitation of that by Du Bartas, and it displays little improvement took place in the intellectual condition considerable refinement of language and versification. To of the people. Literature can hardly be said to have been him succeeded Anders Bording and Thomas Kingo, the cultivated at all. Its sole monument is the history (written first of whom was a more industrious than gifted writer. in Latin) by Saxo Grammaticus, who died in 1208. In the He published a great number of poetical pieces in a work same century, the first public library was formed at Lund, in edited by himself, under the title of “The Danish Mercury.' Sweden, which was then under the dominion of Denmark; which were little more than a rhyming chronicle of the but during the following century literary studies rather de- events of the day. Kingo, who has been termed the Dr. clined, being superseded on the one hand by the system of dia- Watts of Denmark, on account of the religious cast of his lectic then in vogue; and on the other, by extravagant monkish poetry, and who was the son of a weaver, entered the church, legends. In the fifteenth century the university of Copen- and became bishop of Fynen. His celebrity among his hagen was established by Christian I., and opened in 1479 ; contemporaries was very great, and he certainly possessed yet it was long before either that event or the adoption of much genuine talent; but his private character was by no the principles of the Reformation effected any improvement means the most amiable. He was even sordidly avaricious, in education or in the intellectual condition of the people. and the man who expressed so many noble and generous

In the mean time the language itself, now one of the sentiments displayed in his own conduct much that was softest in sound and most simple in construction of all the despicable and mean. Still he is exempt from the reproach Gothic dialects, which had begun to change from that of of countenancing vice in others by the laxity and immoral Iceland in the eleventh and twelve centuries, gradually tendency of his own productions. His writings still conborrowed more and more from the Low-German, but did tinue to be read, nor is it many years sinco his . Psalms' were not acquire any fixity until the fifteenth. Its progress reprinted with a very numerous list of subscribers. Jörgen was greatly retarded by Latin being employed as the lan. Jörgenson Sorterup is almost the only other nami of any guage of the clergy and students, and German as that of importance belonging to this period. Inferior to Kingu in the court and the higher classes. Although it possesses poetical feeling, he had the merit of breaking through the scarcely any literary value in itself, otherwise than as a literary mannerism of the time, and striking into a different specimen of the language at that period, the most remark route. His 'Heltesange,' or heroic songs, wherein he celeable production of the fifteenth century is · Den Danske brates the naval achievements of his countrymen and the Riimkronike' (or chronicle in rhyme) of Niel, a monk of victories of Frederic IV., revive, though in an inferior de Soröe, who being desirous of giving his countrymen their an gree, the animated strains of the older Kæmpe Viser. After nals in a more popular form, made use of the work of Saxo all, Sorterup and his immediate predecessors constitute only Grammaticus, continuing it from the substance of other La- the first faint dawnings of Danish literature, which in Holtin records, but moulding the whole differently, and making berg suddenly attained to a noon-day brightness. (Holeach monarch relate his own exploits and the events of his BERG.] reign. The first edition of this work is that of 1495, and In a sketch like the present we cannot recapitulate Holone was published by Molbech in 1825, illustrated by an in- berg's chief productions, while to examine them as they detroduction and a glossary. Not long after Niel, a priest at serve, and so as to give a satisfactory idea of them and of Odensee, named Mikkel, obtained some celebrity by his re their author's varied talents, would be matter for a vo ligious poems, the longest of which is in honour of the lume of some bulk. In speaking of such a man, it is rosary, and breathes the spirit of Roman Catholic devotion. difficult to award him his just praise without seeming to As a model of style, of language, and versification, this pro- fall into exaggeration; for what he is fairly entitled to is duction places its author at the head of the Danish poets of known only to those who are actually acquainted with his the fifteenth century. About twenty years later, the same writings. As the author of Peder Paars,' he has been place (Odensee) gave Denmark another writer of some note compared not only to Butler, but to Hogarth, and although in its literary annals, namely, Christian Hansen, a school- no imitator of either, he rivals both the poet and the painter master, who first attempted dramatic poetry, and whose in satiric humour. That production alone would have imcompositions, though barbarous in taste, and both grotesque mortalised him among his countrymen. The same may be and coarse in their dialogue, are not wholly destitute of said of his comedies: with defects and sins against good merit as regards style, nor of interest as throwing some taste which no one would now fall into, they are marked light on the manners and opinions of the age. The real by great dramatic power and genuine humour.* There is poetry however of the whole of this period is to be sought scarcely any branch of literature which he left unattempted, for in the national ballads and other compositions of popular

• The English reader will find a well executed specimen of Holberg as a minstrelsy, which, though despised by those who affected any dramatist in an entire scene from his comedy of Don Ranudo Colibrados. to sort of learning, were ardently cherished by the rest of the the Apendix to Feldborg's Denmark Delineated,' which work also contains

much interesting informativu relative both to the artists and the literary men people. The first printed collection of such pieces was that

of that country.

but he was not equally successful in all. In some of them in others, was Johan Herman Wessel, who, like Holberg, he has since been greatly surpassed by other Danish writers, was a native of Norway, and like him possessed much comic but there is no one who has yet equalled him in his own talent and turn for humorous satire. Of these qualities he peculiar line. He was to Darish literature what Peter the gave proof in his dramatic epigram or parody entitled Great was to Russia. He gave it a sudden and powerful Kierlighed uden Strömpei Love without stockings) impulse, and produced a no less beneficial than extraordinary (1772), which experienced a very different reception from change in the intellectual tastes of his countrymen, whom Ewald's Rolf Krage, for its success on the stage was almost he taught to read and to think. In short, if • Don Quixote' unprecedented, and it became such a favourite, that it was alone will repay a student for the task of acquiring the not uncommon for persons to know the whole of it by heart. Spanish language, so will the works of Holberg indemnify Nevertheless he is said not to have intended it for represenan Englishman for the labour, or rather the recreation, of tation, and to have been so doubtful of its success on the making himself acquainted with a language so nearly allied stage, that it was with the greatest difficulty his friends to his native tongue.

could prevail upon him to offer it. After this production, Contemporary with Holberg were Gram, Falster, Snee- his tales in verse are those which exhibit him io most ad dorff, and Tullin. The first of these, who was Archivarius vantage, since they earned for him the title of the Danish of Denmark, was an acute and industrious antiquary and Lafontaine. They partake however more of the manner of historian. His inquiries threw much light upon the more Prior. obscure portions of Northern annals; and some of their re For convenience sake we may here put together the names sults were given to the world in the notes to the Florentine of the brothers Trojel, Bull, Weyer, Fasting, Samsöe, edition of Meursius's . History of Denmark.' Though his Storm, and Suhm, as those of the principal writers of the productions were inconsiderable in number, Christian Fal- time who closed their career before the end of the century ster acquired no small repute as a satirist, in which character Peter Magnus and Peter Cofod Trojel claim notice chietiy he wroie in a still bolder and bitterer tone than Holberg for their songs and bacchanalian lyrics, a species of poetry himself, while as a poet he was certainly superior to him. in which the Danes have greatly distinguished themselves His satires went through several editions between 1730 and Magnus is also known by his satires and poetical epistles 1750.

some of which possess considerable merit. Bull was the Sneedorff is not a name of great eminence, yet he author of some ethic and didactic poems, but as a writer he was a most serviceable labourer in the field of literature, has no great merit. Niels Weyer was a poet of more than one to whom the language itself is greatly indebted for the ordinary promise, but as he died at the age of twenty-one, example which he set of a pure, elegant, and graceful his works do not show the refined fruits of talent. Claus style, such as no previous writer had attained to. These Fasting obtained more celebrity by his epigrams, some of qualities rendered his periodical, entitled “The Patriotic the best in the language, than by his tragedy of 'Hiermione.' Spectator,' exceedingly popular, and contributed to improve The other three are far more important names in our catathe taste both of readers and of writers. As a poet he has logue; yet that of Samsöe we may dismiss at once, referring far less merit, though his poems were much admired in their to what has already been said of him (SAMSÖE), and pass day. We may in this place mention Tyge Rothe, professor on to Edward Storm. If Storm were known only by his of philosophy at the university of Copenhagen, for, like comic epic • Bragur,' in hexameter verse, his reputation Sneedorff, he greatly contributed to refine the language, and would not be high, since, if not absolutely a failure, it is a his work on the Love of One's Country’is a finished model very moderate performance, and by no means to be comparea of style. When he attempted verse however his eloquence with his tales and fables, which display much genuine comic forsook him; his philosophical poem on the 'Destiny of humour, and some of which are particularly felicitous, exMan' shows him to have been more favoured by the god- hibiting that keen relish for the ludicrous which appears to dess of wisdom than by the muses.

be a trait in the national character. Nor are his ballads What Sneedorff and Rothe did for prose, Tullin performed less admirable: they breathe the genuine spirit of the for poetry; he gave it the charm of melody, ease, and rich antient minstrelsy, and, but for their modern diction, might ness; on which account, although not a poet of the first be taken for compositions of the antient Skalds. Suhm's order, he may fairly be considered a master in the mechani-claims to celebrity are of a different kind, for though not cal part of the art. In that respect he may be classed with without pretensions as a poet, it is by his historical works Pope, and he also occasionally resembles the English poet that he adorned the literature of his country. His ‘Hisin his moral strains. He was acquainted with the English tory of Denmark' (in 11 vols.) displays extraordinary dilipoets, and seems to have imbibed no small portion of the gence and research, and is a work of no ordinary merit, spirit of Young, whom he closely approaches in his ‘Skab- though its value is now in some degree lessened by recent ningens Ypperlighed,' or poem on the creation, which dis- productions of the kind, such as G. L. Baden's (in 5 vols., plays a similar loftiness in the conceptions and deep 1829-32) and L. C. Müller's (2 vols., 1835-6). He also religious sentiment. This production had many admirers wrote many historical tales and narratives (occupying

in Germany, and Jenisch pronounces it to be a work dis- three volumes in the collection of his works), founded upon 1 playing a fiery imagination, unrivalled by anything of the antient traditions, and giving lively pictures of the manners

kind in his own language. Tullin was certainly not devoid and habits of the former population of Scandinavia, and of poetical power: indeed his thoughts are often sublime of the national character. and most happily expressed. His lyrical pieces possess Before the close of the century a new school, at least a much elegance and tenderness, and they encouraged a num new generation, had begun to spring up. Both Rahbek and ber of imitators, some of them mere versifiers, while none Baggesen had already made themselves favourably known to of them produced more than agreeable trifles.

the public, and the first had already done much towards We now arrive at a period of the literature-of its poetry popularising a taste for literature by his two periodical pubespecially, which may be designated as that of Ewald lications, the Minerva' (commenced in 1785) and the {EWALD), for he impressed upon it a character till then un • Danish Spectator,' both of which obtained merited success. known, vivifying it by his own fervid genius. If Holberg About the same time Baggesen had made himself a favourite was the founder of Danish comedy, Ewald was the creator with the public by his ' Comic Tales,' decidedly the best of of the national tragedy. His • Rolf Krage' (1770) forms an their kind in the language; while, in his . Labyrinthen,'or epoch in the drama, being the first model of that species of Tour through Germany, Switzerland, &c., he had produced it which has since been so successfully cultivated by Oeh- the most admirable specimen of a prose style that the literalenschläger and others. As a lyric poet he stands still ture possesses. Yet considering how much more both of higher, and some writers have pronounced him the most them afterwards performed, these writers can be said to perfect and powerful master in that branch of the art that have been at this period only in the early part of their the world has ever yet seen. Distinguished by genius, he career. That of Oehlenschläger, a name now of European was scarcely less so by misfortune, which may in some de celebrity, may be dated from the first years of the ninegree be attributed to his imprudence, as well as to disap- teenth century, the poetical pieces by him, which appeared pointment, and to the cold muifference of those wbo should in 1803, being almost the first of his published productions, have patronised him as an ornament to their country. A and in the following year the first book of his rifacciamento tithe of the posthumous honour and applause bestowed upon or modernised version of the Edda, printed in Rahbek's him would have cheered, perhaps prolonged his bitter and Charis.' With the 'Edda' he proceeded no further than brief existence. Contemporary with Ewald, his coheritor that specimen, but in his dramas and some other works in indigence, his counterpart in many respects, his opposite he has re-opened the stores

of antient Scandinavian fable


uages. Nor is


and mythology, and revived the olden spirit of his father- | Relative to Pram we need add nothing here to the account land.

already given of him. [Pram.] Baggesen's is a name which As a better opportunity does not offer itself, we will here stands out prominently from those of almost all the rest of make mention of two writers, who ought not to be passed his countrymen, he being in that respect nearly upon a level over, although we do not know whether they may not be with Oehlenschläger; and the extended celebrity wbich still living. At the end of the eighteenth century the they both enjoy is due to another cause besides the intrinsic Danish drama was signalised by one of the best productions merit of their works, namely, to their having written many of its kind which had then appeared, ‘Niels Ebbesen,' a of them in German, or afterwards reproduced them in tragedy, by Christian Levin Sander. The celebrity which that language. That Baggesen should ever have emit obtained was such that it was translated into several lan- ployed a foreign tongue is greatly to be regretted, because

the less remarkable as being the only he was capable of using his own in the most attractive mansuccessful effort of the author, whose other dramatic at His translation of Holberg's · Niels Klimm,' for intempts, especially in comedy, hardly attain mediocrity: stance (which was originally written in Latin), is a happy Shortly afterwards (1804) appeared Det Befriede Israel' specimen of style. He seems to have aimed at temporary (*Israel Delivered'), an epic poem in hexameters, by Jens celebrity rather than permanent fame, when he joined Michael Hertz, which was certainly a failure upon the the thronged ranks of German literature, in which he could whole, notwithstanding it contains detached parts of con- hope to attain only a second-rate or third-rate reputation, siderable merit. In fact Danish literature cannot yet boast whereas in his own he might have occupied a foremost of a single epic; yet if it has nothing which strictly answers place. He was a writer of varied talents, and in his lyric to that title, it possesses some narrative poems of the kind, pieces he touched every mood, from the sublime to the such as Ingemann's ' Valdemar' (not his romance of that burlesque, from the gay to the pensive. In his other writname), and his 'Black Knights,' which are meritorious per- ings he frequently showed much of Voltaire, of Wieland, formances.

and of Sterne. Unfortunately he did not direct his powers Other names which may here be introduced as those of either so advantageously to himself or so usefully to others writers belonging to the last decennium of the century, but as he might have done. His life was an unsettled one, whose biographical dates we are unable to specify more during the greater part of which he lived self-banished clearly, are Otto Horrebow, Edward Colbiornsen (who died from his country; and be also suffered himself to be too about 1791), and W. H. F. Abrahamson, all of whom pos- much engaged by literary party quarrels, repeatedly attacksessed considerable poetical talent in compositions of a de- ing Oehlenschläger, Rahbek, and others with violent bitterscriptive or didactic class. To these may be added Magd. ness. Sophia Buchholm, who in 1793 published some poems Less gifted than Baggesen, with more of industry and of which were highly creditable both to her talent and her tact than of superior talent, Rahbek raised himself to an feeling. About the same time appeared three volumes of honourable place in Danish literature. It was as a journalist, comedies and other dramatic pieoes by the elder Heiberg, critic, and literary historian, rather than as an original some of the best original productions that had then been writer, that he commanded attention, for in the last characgiven to the stage since the days of Holberg. Olufsen too ter he was merely pleasing and agreeable, without display. distinguished himself (1793) by a solitary masterpiece, his ing much peculiar power of any kind. His · Erindringer • Gulddaasen,' which as a specimen of comedy made no less mit Liv,' or Reminiscences, is however an interesting sensation than Samsöe's • Dyvecke' did in tragedy. autobiography, far more detailed than Oehlenschläger's.

Jacob Baden, the earliest on our list of those who, although After Rahbek, we come to Oehlenschläger himself, Inge they belong as writers to the eighteenth, lived also in the mann, and other writers who are yet living, and at whom we nineteenth century, did very much for the language by his can take no more than a hasty glance. The writings of the * Grammar Raisonné,' by his Critical Journal, and by first-mentioned alone would form the subject of a long various philological treatises which have become established analysis, and have in fact been frequently so examined authorities for idiom and style. He is also known by his both in German and in English periodicals. That he able translation of Tacitus. His wife, who was born in 1740, looked for subjects, if not exactly for models, in the legends and who survivea him, also possessed literary talent, and of the older Scandinavian history and inythology, has published • Den Portsatte Grandison, a continuation of already been mentioned; but he has also occasionally gone Richardson's romance.

to the east and to the south for them. His · Fiskeren' and J. C. Tode, though a German by birth and a physician by Aladdin’are two charming dramatised poems in Oriental profession, nevertheless distinguished himself in litera-costume, while his · Correggio,' a piece more adapted in its ture as a humorous writer, as which his · Moralske og form to the stage, presents us with the idea of a true artist. Satiriske Afhandlinger' (1793) exhibit him to great advan- Yet although the dramatic is his favourite form of compositage, and show him to have possessed a fund of pleasantry. tion, he has attempted many others; among these is his His Fables are also among the best in the language. He Nordens Guder,' styled by himself an epic, but rather a was chiefly ambitious of shining in comedy, but though cyclus of ballads or narrative poems in different metres, he produced several very clever pieces, which were at the recording the fabled adventures of the Scandinavian deities. time an acquisition to the stage, they are not marked by He has also written a romance in 4 volumes, entitled Oen i any superior merits. From those who have spoken of the Sydhavet,' or 'The Island in the South Sea,' which is a sort writers of Denmark, Foersom has been so far from obtain- of Robinson Crusoe,' prolix, it is true, but not more so than ing the notice he deserves, that his name has scarcely Defoe's. Ingemann has obtained celebrity not only as a poet, been mentioned by any of them; all the more valuable there but also in the field of historical romance, and is generaliy fore is the biographical account given of him by Feldborg: complimented with the title of the Walter Scott of DenIt is true he was not an original writer, but he performed mark. His chief production of that kind, Valdemar Seir,' for his countrymen the essential service of enabling them to has recently been translated into English. Several other enjoy Shakspere_in a worthy form. His translation of writers have since cultivated the same species of composiShakspere,' says Feldborg, ‘is as much a work of genius as tion; and foremost among them stand Carsten Hauch a statue of Thorvaldsen's or a tragedy of Oehlenschläger's.' (who has displayed great dramatic power in tragedy) and This is a high encomium, and, we are willing to believe, well Petersen. Thus it is not improbable that Danish literature merited also, though we cannot positively vouch for its will soon be able to show some original productions of that being quite free from exaggeration. However, it is certain kind, whereas it has hitherto possessed scarcely any but that as far as he proceeded in it (for he translated only translations, those by its own writers being rarely more than some of the plays) he executed his arduous task with true mere tales, and Kruse being almost the only one who can be devotion.

regarded as a novelist; yet as far as his own country is conThe year 1821 deprived Denmark of four of its poetsm cerned, many of his later productions cannot be taken into Rein, Thaarup, Zetlitz, and Pram. Rein holds a subor- account, since they are written in German. He has howdinate rank, although his narrative pieces possess much ever written several dramatic pieces in Danish, a collection of merit. Thaarup, on the contrary, was a literary veteran, which was published in four volumes, 1818-20. Stein Bliwho, besides having produced two of the best and most popu- cher's novels are not only more recent but more truly Danish lar operas in the language, had distinguished himself in the than Kruse's, inasmuch as they depict the national character higher species of lyric poetry, especially in his Hymns and with graphic fidelity. Another writer, who conceals himself Cantatos. Zetlitz occupies a respectable station, by his under the assumed name of Karl Bernard, has also prosatires and poetical epistles, and also by his heroic odes. I duced some spirited manners-painting novels.

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