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III. The substitution of one sound for another; (8,
chil-dren. com-prum-ise" com-pro-mise
IV. Produce the sounds denoted by the following com binations of consonants:
Let the pupil first produce the sounds of the letters, and then the word or words in which they occur. Be careful to give a clear and distinct enunciation to every letter.
1. Bd, as in rob'd; bdst, prob'dst; bi, bland, able; bld, hum bľ'd; bldst, troubľ'dst; blst, troubl'st; blz, crumbles; br, brand; bz, ribs.
2. Ch, as in church; cht, fetch'd.
3. Dj, as in edge; djd, hedg'd; dl, bridle; dld, riddľ'd; dlst, handl'st; dlz, bundles; dn, hard'n; dr, drove; dth, width; dths, breadths; dz, odds.
4. Fl, as in flame; fld, rifl'd; Ast, stifl'st; Az, rifles; fr, from; fs, quaffs, laughs; fst, laugh'st, quaff'st; ft, raft; fts, wafts; fist, graft'st.
5. Gd, as in begg'd; gdst, bragg'dst; gl, glide; gld, struggl'd; gldst, haggl'dst; glst, strangl'st; glz, mingles; gr, grove; gst, begg'st; gz, figs.
6. Kl, as in uncle, ankle; kld, trickľ'd; kldst, truckľ'dst; klst, chuckl'st; klz, wrinkles; kn, black'n; knd, reck'n'd; kndst, reck'n'dst; knst, black'n'st; knz, reck'ns; kr, crank; ks, checks; kt, act.
7. Lb, as in bulb; lbd, bulb'd; lbs, bulbs; lch, filch; Icht, belch'd; ld, hold; ldst, fold'st; ldz, holds; lf, self; Ifs, gulfs; lj, bulge; lk, elk; lks, silks; lkt, milk'd; lkts, mulcts; lm, elm; lmd, whelm'd; lmz, films; ln, fall'n;
lp, help; lps, scalps; lpst, help'st; ls, false; lst, call'st lt, melt; lth, health; lths, stealths; lts, colts; lv, delve; lvd, shelv'd; luz, elves; lz, halls.
8. Md, as in doom'd; mf, triumph; mp, hemp; mpt, tempt; mpts, attempts; mst, entomb'st; mz, tombs.
9. Nch, as in bench; ncht, pinch'd; nd, and; ndst, end'st; ndz, ends; ng, sung; ngd, bang'd; ngth, length; ngz, songs; nj, range; njd, rang'd; nk, ink; nks, ranks; nkst, thank'st; nst, winc'd; nt, sent; nts, rents; ntst, went'st;
10. Pl, as in plume; pld, rippl'd; plst, rippl'st; plz, apples; pr, prince; ps, sips; pst, rapp'st; pt, ripp'd.
11. Rb, as in herb; rch, search; rcht, church'd; rbd, orb'd; rbdst, barb'dst; rbst, disturb'st; rbz, orbs; rd, hard; rdst, heard'st; rdz, words; rf, turf; rft, scarf'd; rg, burg; rgz, burgs; rj, dirge; rjd, urg'd; rk, ark; rks, arks; rkst, work'st; rkt, dirk'd; rktst, embark'dst; rl, girl; rld, world; rldst, hurld'st; rlst, whirl'st; rlz, hurts; rm, arm; rmd, arm'd; rmdst, harm'dst; rmst, arm'st; rmz, charms; rn, turn; rnd, turn'd; rndst, earn'dst; rnst, learn'st; rnz, urns; rp, carp; rps, harps; rpt, warp'd ; rs, verse; rsh, harsh; rst, first; rsts, bursts; rt, dart; rth, earth; rths, births; rts, marts; rtst, dart'st; rv, curve; rvd, nerv'd; redst, curv'dst; rvst, swerv'st; ruz, nerves;
12. Sh, as in ship; sht, hush'd; sk, scan, skip; sks, tusks; skst, frisk'st; skt, risk'd; sl, slow; sld, nestl'd; slz, wrestles; sm, smile; sn, snag; sp, sport; sps, lisps; spt, clasp'd; st, stag; str, strike; sts, rests; sw, swing.
13. Th, as in thine, thin; thd, breath'd; thr, three; thst, breath'st; thw, thwack; thz, writhes; tl, title; tld, settl'd; tldst, settl'dst; tlst, settl'st; tlz, nettles; tr, trunk; ts, fits; tw, twirl.
14. Vd, as in curv'd; vdst, liv'dst; vl, driv'l; vld, grov'l'd; vldst, grov'l'dst; vlst, driv'l'st; vn, driv'n; vst, liv'st; vz, lives.
15. Wh, as in when, where.
16. Zd, as in mus'd; zl, dazzle; zld, muzzľ'd; zldst, dazzl'dst; zlst, dazzl'st; zlz, muzzles; zm, spasm; zmz, chasms; zn, ris'n; znd, reas'n'd; znz, pris'nz; zndst, impris'n'dst.
V. Avoid blending the termination of one word with the beginning of another, or suppressing the final letter or letters of one word, when the next word commences with a similar sound.
NOTE. By an indistinct Articulation the sense of a passage is often liable to be perverted.
1. Will he attempt to conceal his acts?
2. The man had oars to row her over.
8. Can there be an aim more lofty?
4. The judges ought to arrest the culprits.
5. His ire burned when she told him her age.
Bravely o'er the boisterous billows,
2. Can craven cowards expect to conquer the country?
Firm-paced and slow, a horrid front they form,
6. The flaming fire flashed fearfully in his face.
7. The glassy glaciers gleamed in glowing light.
8. How high his honors heaved his haughty head!
9. He drew long, legible lines along the lovely landscape.
10. Masses of immense magnitude move majestically through the vast empire of the solar system.
11. Round the rough and rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran.
12. The stripling stranger strayed straight toward the struggling
13. She uttered a sharp, shrill shriek, and then shrunk from the shriveled form that slumbered in the shroud.
14. For fear of offending the frightful fugitive, the vile vagabond ventured to vilify the venerable veteran.
Amidst the mists, with angry boasts,
16. Peter Prangle, the prickly prangly pear picker, picked three pecks of prickly prangly pears, from the prangly pear trees, on the pleasant prairies.
17. Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; now, if Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb, see that thou, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust not three thousand thistles through the thick of thy thumb. Success to the successful thistle sifter.
We travel sea and soil; we pry, we prowl;
ACCENT AND EMPHASIS.
ACCENT and EMPHASIS both indicate some special stress. of voice.
ACCENT is that stress of voice by which one syllable of a word is made more prominent than others; EMPHASIS is that stress of voice by which one or more words of a sentence are distinguished above the rest.
The accented syllable is sometimes designated thus: (1); as, com-mand'-ment.
NOTE I.-Words of more than two syllables generally have two or more of them accented.
The more forcible stress of voice, is called the Primary Accent; and the less forcible, the Secondary Accent.
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ACCENT.
In the following examples the Primary Accent is designated by double accentual marks, thus:
Ed-u-cate', ed'-u-ca''-tion, mul''-ti-ply', mul'-ti-pli-ca''-tion, sat''-isfy', sat'-is-fac''-tion, com'-pre-hend'', com'-pre-hen''-sion, rec'-om-mend'', rec'-om-mend-all-tion, mo''-ment-a'-ry, com-mu''-ni-cate', com'-pli-ment''al, in-dem'-ni-fi-call-tion, ex'-tem-po-ra''-ne-ous, coun'-ter-rev'-o-lu''-tiona-ry.
NOTE II.—The change of accent on the same word often changes its meaning.
col-league, a partner.
col-league', to unite with.
des-cant', to comment.
in-ter-dict', to forbid.
o-ver-throw', to throw down.