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At last the hour of liberation came. And gray-green ice, rising to the height of several first you distinguish a line of coast–in reality hundred feet above the masts of the vessel. but the roots of Beerenberg-dyed of the dark- Such is Jan Mayen, discovered in 1614, rareest purple; while, obedient to a common im- ly seen, and still more rarely visited by navipulse, the clouds that wrapped its summit gently gators. The reader probably recollects the stodisengage themselves, and leave the mountain ry of the seven seamen who were induced by standing, in all the magnificence of its 6870 the Dutch Government to winter on the island, feet, girdled by a single zone of pearly vapor, and solve the problem whether or no human from underneath whose floating folds seven beings could support the severities of the clienormous glaciers roll down into the sea! Na- mate. It is a thrilling narrative. Standing ture seems to have turned scene-shifter, so art- on the shore, these seven men saw their comfully are the phases of this glorious spectacle suc- rades' parting sails sink down beneath the sun cessively developed. The beauty of the view — then watched the sun itself sink, and were is heightened greatly by the glaciers. Imagine left in all the gloom of an arctic night. Huts a mighty river started down the side of the had been built for them, and they were furmountain, bursting over every impediment — nished with an ample supply of salt provisions. whirled into a thousand eddies—tumbling and They left a touching record of their fate. On raging on from ledge to ledge in quivering cat- the 8th of September they were frightened aracts of foam—then suddenly struck rigid by a by a noise of something falling to the ground,” power so instantaneous in its action that even probably some volcanic disturbance. A month the froth and fleeting wreaths of spray have later it becomes so cold that their linen, after stiffened to the immutability of sculpture. Un- a moment's exposure to the air, is frozen like less actually seen, it is impossible to conceive a board. Huge fleets of ice beleaguered the the strangeness of the contrast between the tran- island, the sun disappears, and they spend most quillity of these silent crystal rivers and the vio- of their time in “rehearsing to one another lent descending energy impressed upon their ex- the adventures that had befallen them both by terior. And all this upon a scale of such pro- sea and land.” On the 12th of December they digious magnitude that, having approached the kill a bear, having already begun to feel the efspot where, with a leap like that of Niagara, fects of a salt diet. At last comes New-year's one of these glaciers plunges down into the sea, day, 1636. It passed. On the 25th of February the eye, no longer able to take in its fluvial the sun reappeared. By the 22d of March character, is content to rest in simple astonish- scurvy had already declared itself, and on Easment at what then appears a lucent precipice of ter day the first man died. During the next

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few days they seem all to have got rapidly / ality-recommending that natives of strange worse; one only is strong enough to move lands be “enticed on board, and made drunk about. He has learned writing from his com- with your beer and wine; for then you shall rades since coming to the island, and it is he know the secrets of their hearts." The whole who concludes the melancholy story. “On concluding with an exhortation to all on board the 23d of April the wind blew from the same to take especial heed to the devices of “ certain corner with small rain. We were by this time creatures with men's heads and the tails of fish. reduced to a very deplorable state, there being es, who swim with bows and arrows about the none of them all except myself that were able fiords and bays, and live on human flesh.” to help themselves, much less one another, so On the 11th of May the ill-starred expedition that the whole burden lay upon my shoulders— got under way from Deptford and put to sea. and I perform my duty as well as I am able, as By the 30th of July the little fleet-three veslong as God pleases to give me strength. I am sels in all-were abreast of the Luffoden isles, just now agoing to help our commander out of but a gale coming on, the Esperanza was sepahis cabin, at his request, because he imagined rated from her consorts. Ward-huus-a little by this change to ease his pain, he then strug- harbor to the east of the North Cape—had been gling with death.” For seven days this gallant appointed as the place of rendezvous in case fellow goes on striving “to do his duty ;” that of such an event, but unfortunately Sir Hujh is to say, making entries in the journal as to overshot the mark, and wasted all the precious the state of the weather, that being the princi- autumn time in blundering amidst the ice to the pal object their employers had in view when eastward. At last winter set in, and they were they landed them on the island; but on the obliged to run for a port in Lapland. Here, 30th of April his strength too gave way, and removed from all human aid, they were frozen his failing hand could do no more than trace to death. A year afterward the ill-fated ships an incompleted sentence on the page. Mean- were discovered by some Russian sailors, and while succor and reward are on their way to- an unfinished journal proved that Sir Hugh and ward the forlorn garrison. On the 4th of June, many of his companions were still alive in Janup again above the horizon rise the sails of the uary, 1554. Zealand fleet; but no glad faces come forth to The next voyage of discovery, in a northeast greet the boats as they pull toward the shore ; direction, was sent ont by Sir Francis Cherie, and when their comrades search for those they Alderman of London, in 1603. After proceedhad hoped to find alive and well-lo! each lies ing as far east as Ward-huus and Kela, the dead in his own hut, one with an open prayer-Godspeed pushed north into the ocean, and on book by his side, another with his hand stretch - the 16th of August fell in with Bear Island. cd out toward the ointment he had used for his Unaware of its previous discovery by Barentz, stiffened joints, and the last survivor with the the commander of this expedition christener unfinished journal still by his side.

the island Cherie Island, in honor of his patron, A dash across to Hamerfest, where Lapp la- and to this day thic two names are used almost dies and gentlemen may be seen and examined indiscriminately. by the curious, and then again Northward, ho! In 1607 Henry Hudson was dispatched by th: in right good earnest. Ice, ice, nothing but ice Muscovy Company with orders to sail, if possiis seen now,

and the little yacht runs many per- ble, right across the pole. Although perpetualilous risks. A sleepless sun looks coldly down ly baffled by the ice, Hudson at last succeede:! during long days and longer nights, but still the in reaching the northwest extremity of Spitznavigators persevere in their attempts to reach bergen, but finding his further progress arrestSpitzbergen

ed by an impenetrable barrier of fixed ice, he The northwest passage has been discovered, was forced to return. A few years later, Jonas biu a northeast passage still remains an impen- Poole-having been sent in the same direction, ctrable mystery. Toward the close of the six- instead of prosecuting any discoveries, wisely teenth century, in spite of repeated failures, set himself to killing the sea-horses that freone endeavor after another was made to pene- quent the arctic ice-fields, and in lieu of tidings trate to India across these fatal waters.

of new lands, brought back a valuable cargo of The first English vessel that sailed on the walrus tusks. In 1615 Fotherby started with disastrous quest was the Bona Esperanza, in the the intention of renewing the attempt to sail last year of King Edward VI. Her command- across the North Pole, but after encounterin er was Sir Hugh Willoughby, and there is still many dangers he also was forced to return. 11 extant a copy of the instructions drawn up by was during the course of his homeward voyage Sebastian Cabot, the grand pilot of England, that he fell in with the island of Jan Mayen. for his guidance. Nothing can be more pious Soon afterward the discovery, by Hudson and than the spirit in which this ancient document Davis, of the seas and straits to which they have is conceived, expressly enjoining that morning given their names, diveried the attention of the and evening prayers should be offered on board public from all thoughts of a northeast passage, every ship attached to the expedition, and that and the Spitzbergen waters were only frequent. neither dicing, carding, tabling, nor other “dev- ed by ships engaged in the fisheries. The gradclish devices” were to be permitted. Here and ual disappearance of the whale, and the disthere were clauses of more questionable mor-corery of more profitable fishing-stations on the

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west coast of Greenland, subsequently abolished / are still of opinion that Parry's plan for reach-
the sole attraction for human beings which this ing the pole might prove successful if the ex-
in hospitable region ever possessed, and of late pedition were to set out earlier in the season,
years the Spitzbergen seas have remained as ere the intervening field of ice is cast adrift by
lonely and unvisited as they were before the the approach of summer.
first adventurer invaded their solitude.

In the track of these adventurous spirits
Twice only, since the time of Fotherby, has now struggled little schooner Foam. Days
any attempt been made to reach the pole on elapsed, and her crew began to fear that they
a northeast course. In 1773 Captain Phipps, would never reach the land they sought, the
afterward Lord Mulgrave, sailed in the Carcass fields of ice all around, and especially to the
toward Spitzbergen, but he never reached a eastward, where the land lay, were so dense, and
higher latitude than 81°. It was in this ex- the brief summer season, too, was now so rap-
pedition that Lord Nelson made his first voy- idly passing away,
age. The next and last endeavor was under- At length the day was agreed upon when
taken by Parry in 1827. Unable to get his the attempt should be abandoned. During the
ship even as far north as Phipps had gone, he whole of the night previous the schooner beat
determined to leave her in a harbor in Spitz- up along the edge of the ice in the teeth of a
bergen, and push across the sea in boats and violent gale. About nine o'clock in the morn-
sledges. The uneven nature of the surface over ing—but two short hours before the moment
which they had to travel caused their progress at which it had been settled to “bear up"--
northward to be very slow and very laborious. the Foam reached a long low point of ice, that
The ice, too, beneath their feet was not immova- had stretched further to the westward than any
ble, and at last they perceived they were mak- she had yet doubled, and there, beyond, lay an
ing the kind of progress that a criminal makes open sea, open, not only to the northward and
when upon the treadmill--the floes over which westward, but also to the eastward!
they were journeying drifting to the southward The hands were immediately turned up.
faster than they walked north ; so that at the " 'Bout ship!" “Down with the helm !"
end of a long day's march of ten miles, they “Helm a-lee!"
found themselves four miles further from their Up comes the schooner's head to the wind,
destination than at its commencement. Dis the sails flapping with the noise of thunder,
gusted with so Irish a manoeuvre, Parry determ- blocks rattling against the deck, ropes dancing
ined to return, though not until he had almost about in galvanized coils, and every thing, to
reached the 83d parallel. Arctic authorities an inexperienced eye, in inextricable confusion,

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till gradually she pays off on the other tack, the jit not been for the gem-like distinctness of their sails stiffen into deal-boards, the stay-sail sheet outline, they might have been deemed as unis let go, and, heeling over on the opposite side, substantial as the spires of fairyland. They are she darts forward like an arrow from the bow, the hills of Spitzbergen, now warming into a leaping over the heavy seas, and staggering rosier tint as their distance is lessened. Soon under her canvas.

Amsterdam Island is sighted; then come the Within an hour the sun burst through the “seven ice-hills"--as seven enormous glaciers fog, and then, behold! rising above the horizon are called-that roll into the sea between lofty in the clear atmosphere, a forest of thin lilac ridges of gneiss and mica-slate. Clearer anů peaks, at first sight so faint, so pale, that had more defined grows the outline of the mount

ains, some coming forward while others recede; and though no breeze should stir a single leaf,
their rosy tints appear less even, fading here yet-in default of motion-there is always a
and there into pale yellows and grays ; veins sense of growth; but here not so much as a
of shadow score the steep sides of the hills; the blade of grass to be seen on the sides of the
articulations of the rocks become visible; and bald, excoriated hills. Primeval rocks and eter-
now, at last, the Foam glides under the lime- nal ice constitute the landscape !
stone peaks of Mitre Cape, past the marble English Bay is completely landlocked, being
arches of King's Bay on the one side, and the protected in its open side by Prince Charles's
pinnacle of the Vogel Hook on the other, moves Foreland, a long island lying parallel with the
into the quiet channel that separates the fore- main land. Down toward either horn run two
land from the main, and anchors in the silent ranges of schistose rocks about 1500 feet high,
haven of English Bay. The little Foam has their sides almost precipitous, and the topmost
performed no ordinary feat. She has reached ridge as sharp as a knife and jagged as a saw.
almost the northern extremity of Spitzbergen, The intervening space is entirely filled up by an
and has sailed within 630 miles of the pole; enormous glacier, which, descending with one
that is to say, within 100 miles as far north as continuous incline from the head of a valley on
any ship has ever succeeded in getting. the right, and sweeping like a torrent round the

But what a wonderful panorama is here pre- roots of an isolated clump of hills in the centre,
sented! Perhaps its most striking feature is rolls at last into the sea. The length of the
the stillness, the deadness, the impassability of glacial river from the spot where apparently it
this new world. Ice, rock, and water are every first originated could not have been less than
where around. Not a sound of any kind inter- thirty or thirty-five miles, or its greatest breadth
rupts the silence. The sea does not break upon less than nine or ten; but so completely did it
the shore. No bird or any living thing is visi- fill up the higher end of the valley that it was
ble. The midnight sun, muffled in a transpar- almost impossible to distinguish the further
ent mist, sheds an awful mysterious lustre on mountains peeping above its surface. The
glacier and mountain. No atom of vegetation height of the precipice where it fell into the sea
gives token of the earth's vitality. An univers- was about 120 feet.
al numbness and dumbness seems to pervade On left a still more extraordinary sight
the solitude. In no other part of the world, presented itself. A kind of baby-glacier actual-
perhaps, is this appearance of deadness so strik- ly hung suspended half-way on the hillside,
ingly exhibited. On the stillest summer day in like a tear in the act of rolling down the fur-
America there is always perceptible an under- rowed cheek of the mountain. So unaccounta-
tone of life thrilling through the atmosphere ; l ble did it seem that the overhanging mass of ice

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