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ticular uses. Ofcours, they understand that the building is estimated to be quite ample for the commercial necessities of the port, and that its subdivisions contemplate all the usual departments which are involved in the collection of the revenues and the storage of the imported commodities.
Moru than one architect was connected in the original design; but we believe that their several plans were finally fused together by some presiding genius, the favorite at Washington.
Standing upon the steps of the old Custom-house, the eye is naturally arrested by a finely finished building of brown stone that stands obliquely opposite on the southwest corner. This is structure of very recent erection, designed by Jones, one of the most popular of the Palmetto architects. You will see that it shows fairly in a picture. This is ong of the Palmetto Temples of Mammon. This god | ing of the Banking Hall being of the most showy is not without his worshipers in this region. The fashion of encaustic tiling. State Bank is a flourishing institution, though the While our hands are in among the bankers, outsider must not imagine that its name involves let us cast our eyes to the right, looking up East any connection with the body politic. There is a Bay from the steps of the Custom-house. Here State Bank of South Carolina, called the Bank you see a group of buildings, and the three first of the State, and its fiscal agent. But the State of these are all banking houses. That huge, Bank is a private corporation, flourishing and heavy, and somewhat unsightly fabric in the well managed, as you may infer from such a foreground, with the Roman-Doric portico, is the building. It is no cold worship, be assured, Planters and Mechanics' Bank, a structure of which frames such fabrics to its deity; and we the Charleston medieval period, which has reare constrained to admit that there are many of cently undergone such renovation and improvethe temples to the Living God which would show ment as was possible with a very ungainly origvery meanly alongside of those which are here inal. Within, it is a most commodious and exto be seen reared to one of his most powerful cellently planned building for the worship to rivals. This State Bank is one of them. But which it is dedicated ; spacious, cool, airy, elewhat says the poet ?
gant, and capable of hoarding any amount of "Mammon wins his way, where angels might despair." money. Without, it is, as you see, a most imAt all events, whether the god be worthy of such posing deformity—a miserable abuse of a mixed a shrine or not, it is enough for us that the model—which has always seemed to us withont shrine is more than worthy of him. The upper grace, or symmetry, or beauty. But the worchambers of this golden temple are consecra- ship of the deity goes on prosperously within. ted to mercantile literature—in other words, oc- in spite of the bad taste of the temple. Its ofcupied as a commercial reading-room. The fices are urged unceasingly, and good dividends finish of the interior is extremely fine—the oak sufficiently declare that Mammon is satisfied carving being rich and abundant, and the pav- with the offerings laid upon his shrine. Next
to it, and above, is the Farmers' and Exchange to convert this most unpretending establishment Bank-a fanciful little fabric, a little too ornate into an Etruscan or Italian palace. Beyond, for such a worship, and showing beside the in our picture, all the houses that you see are Planters and Mechanics' as a toy-box under the employed in trade—shops, warehouses, etc. This eaves of the tower of Babel. But for the over- is a region (East Bay) wholly given up to trade. whelming bulk of its burly brother, we should These buildings are all of brick, thickly stuccoed call it a bijou of a banking house. It is a nov- -a mode of coating and clothing the brick, in elty in the architecture of Charleston, if not of this precinct, which is rather more common than the day, being Moorish in all its details, yet proper. Very soon, and sensibly, the climate without reminding you of the Alhambra or the affects the plaster. It grows damp and dingy, Vermilion towers. It is of brown stone of two blurred and spotted ; finally cracks, flakes, and tints, laid alternately—an arrangement which falls away; and, what with stains, blotches, and adds considerably to the effect. The interior is breaks, it needs new plastering as frequently as finished with arabesque work from floor to ceil- a house of wood needs paint. ing, and is lighted with subdued rays from But we have now paid sufficient tribute to the summit. This gives a rich and harmo- the several temples of the Charleston Mammon. nious effect to the whole. It is of recent erec- Let us turn to those structures which have been tion, Jones and Lee the architects. The cor- reared in a more philanthropic spirit, and under poration itself is a new one, and prosperous, the auspices of nobler deities. Of these better like all the temples reared to the god of the temples, the Palmetto City claims as large a proMines, the Counter, and the Mint, in this vir- portion as any city in the world. The Orphan tuous city.
House is one of these sanctuaries, of ancient The building just above it is a shop and ware- foundation ; dating back to an early period in house, and gives you a very fair idea of the style the local history. Originally a spacious brick and size of building usually allotted in Charles- building of three stories above the basement ofton to the retail traders.
fices, the length of the house was 180 feet by That tall structure further on is the Union a breadth of thirty feet. Recently it has been Bank, of an old style, but not the oldest, in found necessary to enlarge it. It is now 228 Charleston architecture. It indicated a sort feet long, seventy feet deep, and with an extenof first period, of progress and improvement, in sion in the rear of nearly 100 feet more. It the architecture of this city ; its directors will, no contains about 130 rooms; the dormitories, doubt, receive an impulse from the new graces play, school, and dining rooms and hospitals, of some of their rivals, which shall prompt them all being large and noble apartments. Of these,
eight are twenty-eight by sixtyfive feet square, and several othcrs nearly as large. The house is by far the largest building in the city. The cupola contains the great fire-alarm bell of the city. Its site is a very fine one-very nearly central, occupying an extensive square which fronts south on Calhoun, west on St. Philip's, and north on Vanderhorst streets; on the latter of which, within the same inclosure, the orphans have a neat chapel of their own, separate from the main building. This asylum constitutes a noble charity of which Charleston is very proud. It was founded in 1792, is well endowed, supported chiefly by the city, and rears, nurtures, and instructs from 200 to 250 children of both sexes. Jones and Lee were the architects by whom this structure was enlarged and modernized. We omit from our picture the pretty little lodge in front, the stuccoed wall, and an ancient statue of William Pitt, which occupy the foreground.
The Roper Hospital is another of the noble charities of this city. It takes its name from the benevolent citizen upon whose bequest it
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was founded. It is also designed by Jones and Lee. It is, as you see, a graceful and airy structure, peculiarly suited to its objects. According to the wishes of its founder, it is open for the reception of the sick, irrespective of creed or country. The building is Italian, flanked with towers and arranged with noble piazzas, which afford an admirable promenade under shelter for the convalescents. The comforts of the interior suitably correspond to the external beauty of the structure. The household is provided, like the Orphan House, with a regular physician, with nurses and attendants; and though of only recent erection, it has already, during the last yellow-fever season, done admirable service, being crowded with destitute sufferers from the epidemic, all of whom experienced the blessings of that noble charity which was contemplated by the generous founder of the institution.
In the distance, in the same picture, you have a view of the Medical College of South Carolina, a building which, badly planned in the first in- | The college building would show well in a picstance and of very indifferent style, has recently ture, but our daguerreotypist has omitted it from been renovated and greatly enlarged and im- his survey. proved. It contains, probably, the finest anatom- Talking of schools and colleges brings us to ical lecture-room in all America. As a school, the admirable military academies of South Carthis institution is highly prosperous, and asserts olina, one of which is established in this city. a distinguished rank among the hundreds of This is a highly flourishing institution, which medical colleges throughout the United States; usually numbers from 150 to 200 students, onederiving character, necessarily, from the names half of whom are élèves of the State—beneficiary of Geddings, Dickson, Moultrie, Prioleau, Frost, pupils. The graduates of this institution have and others. We may mention that Charleston mostly been working-men; have almost in evhas also a good literary college of excellent lo- ery instance, on leaving the school, passed at cal standing; though the endowment (from the once into useful public employments; showing city) is quite too small to enable it so to extend the superior discipline and training of the acadits educational attractions as to draw patronage emy over all the other schools of the country, from abroad. Its pupils are mostly from the especially in producing the solid results of a city, and it does not absorb all of these, having practical and scientific education. No gradua powerful competitor in the College of the State, ates of any other institution in the State have which possesses, besides the prestige of an an- ever so instantly borne testimony to the virtues cient reputation, a large annual appropriation and excellences of their Alma Mater. It supfrom the public treasury. The professors of the plies by its military organization what is the Charleston College are able and accomplished. great deficiency in Southern training--discipOne of the departments of the building contains line. The Southern boys are of ardent, impetone of the best museums in the United States, uous temper, strong of will, and impatient of second perhaps to none. A library has recently authority; and it is only by a military training, been founded, based upon a large gift of books which makes discipline a point of honor as well by a munificent citizen — the collection now as duty-which coerces the respect of the stureaching something like ten thousand volumes. I dent through a certain esprit du corps, without irritating his self-esteem-that you can exercise one of the most airy and attractive in the Pala proper control in their government. Judging metto City. by the results thus far, the State of South Caro- Here, too, fronting west on the same square, lina could not do more wisely than to turn all is a new and beautiful church of the Baptists. her public schools and colleges into so many Our artist includes it among his collection, and military academies. The Citadel Academy we give it as a very pretty specimen of the Norbuilding occupies a large space, and opens upon man style of architecture, the only specimen, the largest of all the public squares of the city. we believe, south of the Potomac. Indeed, this is the only public square in Charles- The spire of this church is 224 feet high. ton that merits the title.
The interior is finished with an open timber The original design of this structure was by roof of bold, free design. The Norman details Wesner; the wings have been added, and other and decorations have been carried out in every improvements made, after the designs of Col- portion of the structure, which adds, in no modonel White, another of the architects of the erate degree, to the architectural pretensions of Palmetto City, who takes high rank in his the city. Its extreme dimensions are 80 feet profession. You see that such a building im- |(front) on Meeting Street, and 155 on Henriplies ample room and verge enough. It fronts etta. The side walls are 40 feet high, and the south, on the great square or parade which west, or front, is 70 feet to the point of the gaspreads away to, and borders on, Calhoun ble. The audience-room, which is elevated 51 Street. With this square, that of the Orphan feet above the pavement, is 55 feet wide by House, on the west, but a few hundred yards 110 feet long, and, with the galleries, will acoff; that of the Charleston College, on the commodate 1200 persons. The east end of southwest, a few hundred yards further; and a the building is of two stories, the first being square on the east, which fronts the Second provided with a study for the pastor, and other Presbyterian Church; all this precinct is well apartments; the second, for a Sunday-school ventilated, and sprinkled with churches, large and lecture-room, with library attached. But dwellings, fine, spacious grounds, and pleasant we can not venture upon any detailed account gardens. This section of the city is altogether of the plan and structure. The design is by
Jones and Lee. The Baptists have four churches in Charleston, and have lately received a new impulse which daily increases their numbers.
The square above is occupied by the Second Presbyterian Church; but as this fabric did not commend itself to the taste of our artist, he has foreborne its portrait. It belongs to what we have called the medieval period in the Palmetto City; in which, whilo taste was beginning to assert its desires for improvement, there was no corresponding capacity, on the part of the local arts, to serve properly its desires. It seems to have been the plan of a mere mechanic. It is one of the many heavy brick and stucco deformities of Charleston.
A far better style of church architecture is another house of the Presbyterians, called The Central Church, a quarter of a mile below in the same street.
This is a recent structure of temple (Grecian) form, approached by a spacious flight of steps, leading to a fine portico of the
Roman Corinthian order. The proportions of the exterior are admirable — decidedly the finest specimen of this class that Charleston possesses — very chaste and elegant, both within and without, and as nearly faultless, in respect to symmetry, as we can conceive such a work to be. There is an objection, however, to the style, but only as it regards locality. To be altogether satisfied with the Grecian temple style, we must first satisfy the mind and cye in respect to place. Now, there is no getting over the absurdity of a Greek temple on a dead city level-taking a model from a mountain, designed expressly for a great elevation, and letting it down upon the plain, where it is overlooked on every side by meaner, but taller, structures. This Central Church, placed upon the Sunian Steep, would be perfect of its kind. The American rage for Grecian models, some few years back, made its way in this matter of architecture, though they still to the Palmetto City, and several were raised of expend large sums upon ambitious monstrosithis class, which consumed a great deal of mon- lies, public and private. The Municipal Watchey, without any adequate result in beauty. The house is one of these atrocities of taste. It is Hibernian Hall, The Jewish Synagogue, The modern. The City Hall is in frivolous taste, Baptist Church (Wentworth Street), are all but belongs to a comparatively early period, and specimens of this sort, none of them so admir- was designed for other uses. The State House able as the Central Church, and all of them building, meant for public offices and the keepout of place, for proper effects, where they ing of archives, is a dull, square mass of brick stand. The Grecian style is wholly inappro- and stucco, which has but the single merit of priate to such a dead level as that of Charles- looking solid, and perhaps of being so. It ton. The skies, climate, and plain surface of was designed by Robert Mills, a native archithe city considered, and the light Moorish, Sar- tect, who has distinguished himself more reacen, Italian-even the Gothic—are all in bet-cently, and most deplorably, according to our ter propriety. But about the time when these notion, by his design for the Washington Monfabrics were conceived, the Greek was some-ument of the Federal City, the conception of thing of a frenzy North and South, though rare- which seems to be due to a very vivid recolly a proper style for either region. But men lection of one of the little old three-cornered built their dwellings, offices, and outhouses aft- cocked hats of the Revolutionary period, with a er Grecian temples; as if the Greeks them- grcat rapier of the Middle Ages thrust upward selves had ever assigned such fabrics as abodes through its crown. for any but their gods, or had ever built such We are not sure that the good citizens of struetures, whether for gods or men, any where Charleston now differ in any respect from us but on noble eminences, looking grandly forth in regard to the buildings we have indicated. upon plain or sea! But we have survived these They could wish, most of them, that the fine absurdities of thought and taste. The people sites which they disfigure were occupied by of the Palmetto City, especially, are improving more proper fabrics. They have other build