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Touch the vocal chords, ro] studious
moderare auratum Muse, and modulate the golden quill ;
referamus Let-us-recount a few things] concerning the many acts
Of cour] beloved king.
Weaves a crown of violets alone,
cætera Leaving the rest.
blandi Go, boy; bring the companion of (my] pleasing labour,
[My] harp from the first column; Bring also flowers : far from me
recedat Let all care be gone.
fundo Let Galatea come out-of the lowest depth,
Nil Not-at-all fearing the savage loves of Polypheme;
durum Nor to me singing harshly may the back-flowing
obstrepat Wave roar.
numen Faith! rare and calm
reticenda 0 [thou that art] to-be-passed-in-silence by me [in]
no ages! Tete
I with prayer and victims ever
parvulus Reposed [in] the lap of its] mother, the little Infant, ignorant of care, rests :
almus Thrice, four times, happy! thus always benign
pelles To-be-dreaded : he [his] adamantine coverings
chlamydem consertam partic. And coat-of-mail bound-together with rigid iron,
two reasons : - 1st, That the Sapphic and Alcaic measures are by far the most numerous in the odes of Horace, and on this account form the best, because the most extensive, authority in Lyric measure; and, 2d, because a pupil well versed in the poetry of Horace, and especially in the structure of the Sapphic and Alcaic stanza, will soon almost intuitively understand the laws and rhythm of the other Lyric measures, Archilochian, Iambic, &c. &c.
ON THE SAPPHIC STANZA.
1. The Sapphic Stanza consists of four lines; the three first alike,—the last, called the Versus Adonicus, being always a dactyl and a spondee.
2. The following is a scheme of the Latin Sapphic Stanza : 1st, 2d, and 3d -
1. Versus Adonicus 1 3. In this, as in all measures, to preserve the rhythm, a cæsura takes place; this cæsura is generally after the 5th syllable, thus
. || Il ។
4. Sometimes the cæsura is after the 6th syllable, but the cæsura after the 5th syllable is of much more frequent occurrence.*
* | | | |
1 11 - ។ . Dauniæ defende de cus calmena
* The following are the numbers of the Sapphic stanzas, and
5. In the Greek ode there was a trochee in the second place, but Horace always has a spondee there; altering the measure of his Greek original in this, as in many other instances, to suit the stateliness and majesty of the Latin language.
6. Et and in often suffer elision at the end of a line; and sometimes the first syllable of the first word in the Versus Adonicus suffers elision with the last word of the preceding line :
- Jove non probante
Uxorius amnis. 7. Of the Versus Adonicus, which is always a dactyl and a spondee, it is only to be remarked, that it is better that it should not begin a sentence which is continued in the following stanza, there being only one instance of that in Horace, and that, perhaps, a doubtful one.
8. To give variety to the cadences in a stanza, each line ought to be constructed of words not of the same length with the corresponding words in the other lines. This rule is not universal; but an attentive observation of Horace, and a careful and musical ear, will in this point direct the judgment of the composer.
examples of this cæsura, in the four books of the Odes. and the Carmen Seculare of Horace:
1st Book, fifty-five stanzas, six examples.
thirty-five ... twenty-one Carmen Sec. nineteen
nineteen One may, perhaps, infer from this statement, that this cæsura was more used in those odes which were designed to be sung to music on any public solemnity, or in those lines which conveyed the impression of a loftier thought.
* See Anthon's Horace, Book iv. ode 11. 4. note.